Nigerian Pastor Who Went To China To Destroy Coronavirus Has Been Rushed To The Hospital

Early this week, a Nigerian pastor by name Pastor Elija Emeka Chibuke declared his intentions to travel to China and destroy the deadly corona virus that has been claiming so many lives across the world especially China.We have been following this story closely and though it’s still a developing story that we can not independently confirm, reports say the Nigerian pastor who tried to pray for Coronavirus victims has been rushed to the hospital after showing signs of contacting the virus.

The cost of digging n building a septic tank of 10ft

By William Ekwelu
10ft is big, to save on materials it can be reduced to 8ft, and it will take you very many years before emptying it . For excavating there are three methods you pay per feet , per cubic metre or per metre. Most local casual Labour want to charge per feet that is 25000/= per feet , so calculate how many feet’s you have and multiply by 25000/=.

Second method per Cubic metre
10ft = 3m, assuming depth is 2.4m ,so you get 3by3by 2.4m = 21.6 cubic metres
After that you can decide to multiply those cubic metres with between 4k to 8k depending on your ground nature.
Let us assume 6k or 6000/= Ugandan shillings
So 21.6 multiply 6k = I believe it will give you 129600/=. Just excavation. So it is better you decide how much you are paying each cubic metre but someone to give you a round figure that it is this amount without looking at that ground nature it may help you little.

Alternatively get a professional let him visit the site and let him make quotations . a rough estimate will be 500,000/= but remember you have to dig a soakpit too which may be of relatively similar size . if you get a good casual labour who can excavate it may take not more than 1.2m. Well, 10ft is better and reasonable in the engineering point of view if you expect to have usage capacity of 50 users but it may require you to have short columns like six of them if the soils are loose or weak . so you need to consider some things too. Another thing you look at the size of soakpit and the trip of hardcore it will swallow.

Mine costed about 1.8m including soak pit, labour and materials.

Dont pay guys from national water who come to your house after you made payments at NSWC

When you ask for a new water meter, you don’t pay guys from national water who come to your house after you made payments at NSWC.They are not supposed to be paid. They have an employer who pays them. Ugandans need to work on their entitlement vice when it comes to other people’s money.The connection fee you pay at Nwsc includes the materials, meter, trenching fees and labour. You are not supposed to pay any money to the field staff. All payments are made in the bank and mobile money. Corruption starts from us– why motivate an official worker by giving money yet he is paid at work.

Whether umeme or nwsc people,they will always ask for money which is most times not necessary.At times,you just have to tell them that you already cleared all the payments with their office but sometimes they can be so hard to deal with.

Its very important you go to the nearest branch office in case you want a new water connection and go thorough the right procedure of acquiring the connection.


“Thank you for banking with us, based on your account, you qualify for a loan of xxx amount. I will also give you a very good interest rate” the caller said.

You may have received such calls from the banks. I remember asking one of them what I would do with the loans and he said I could renovate my house, furnish the house or start a business. “Do you have a business idea I could start with?” Of course he had none! If one is not careful, one could get into a #GreeceCrisis. Let us learn Greek, the lessons that is:

For the salary earners, all your loans should not be more than 50% of your take home. Before you take on a loan, you can first calculate how much the monthly instalments are going to be. Make use of the inbuilt loan amortization schedule in excel. This also helps you to create various scenarios using different interest rates and repayment periods until you come up with a manageable scenario

Many borrowers take loans to repay existing loans. This ends up into a vicious cycle. Most of the debts acquired are sometimes not necessary. Bad debts are those acquired for consumption purposes, good debt are those acquired for facilitating generation of more income.

The future income may not materialize as expected. If you borrow expecting a salary raise of say 20% and you get 5% or none what happens? Remember what happened to the Safaricom IPO and those who borrowed to buy the shares?

Even if you do not like to keep records (the only record we are not to keep is a record of wrongs) you should have a place where you rack all your liabilities (the things you owe). Otherwise how will you know how to prioritize the various obligations? If you list all your creditors and they many, why not consider consolidating them to only a couple of them that you can easily track and monitor?

Am yet to hear someone who died of lack of luxury. If luxury is not within your means, accept and be happy to meet your basic needs. Living within your means requires simple disciplines like having and maintaining a budget. If you put together a budget and it is a deficit one (i.e. expenses exceed income), at that point you make the tough choices of cutting of some expenses from your budget or looking for ways to increase your income (loan is not income). But if you live on a deficit status day in day out you are headed for a #GreekCrisis.

The #GreeceCrisis was largely due to unsustainable debt as result of consistently operating on a budget deficit. This is not Greek to anyone, it is that simple! The above lessons are both for the individual and the businesses alike.


First of all, why pay taxes? ‘This is why you pay taxes, for the authorities are God’s servants, who give their full time to governing. Give to everyone what you owe them: If you owe taxes, pay taxes; if revenue, then revenue; if respect, then respect; if honor then honor’. Romans (13:6-7)

Uganda Revenue Authority and other tax collecting bodies are therefore established to fulfill the mandate of collecting as much tax as possible. Imagine a world where the citizen are all tax compliant and the government puts all the taxes to good use…..Utopia 🙂

The more you earn as an individual the more taxes you pay, hence PAYE (Pay As You Earn). The higher the annual gross turnover of a small business, the higher the annual tax payable. The more profits a medium enterprise makes, the more income tax you pay. In other words the only way to avoid tax at the moment is to ensure your monthly earning is less than Ugx235,000 and your annual business turnover is less than Ugx 10,000,000. Below these amounts the tax payable is 0%

So taxes we must pay but how much?

Depending on whether you see the glass as half-full or half-empty, the Uganda budget for 2015/2016 gave a section of small business owners a reason to celebrate. The increasing of the VAT registration threshold was a welcome to many SMEs. It brought with it amendments of The Value Added Tax (VAT) and The Income Tax Act (ITA). This was in line with Uganda Revenue Authority (URA) aim of reducing the administrative burden of small businesses.‪

The VAT amendment bill proposed to increase the annual turnover threshold for VAT registration from Ush 50 million to 150 million. This meant that a broader range of small businesses would be excluded from the requirement to register for VAT. A tax payer below the threshold would still be entitled to apply for (or retain) VAT registration. A registered taxpayer falling below the new threshold may apply for their registration to be cancelled.

The income tax amendment bill proposed to increase the threshold for presumptive tax from Ush 50 million to 150 million, while at the same time halving the base tax rate from 3% to 1.5%. This meant that SME taxpayers with annual turnover between Ush 50 and 150 million would be entitled to calculate their annual income tax liability based on a flat rate of 1.5% applied to their gross turnover. The tax amount may be a lesser lump sum according to where the turnover falls within the four prescribed brackets.

For tax payers with a gross turnover of less than Ush 50 million, specific lump sum tax amount would apply (ranging from Ush100,000 to 500,000) depending on the nature of the business and location. For instance those earning between Ush35 million to Ush50 million per annum, would pay Ush500,000 per year, while those with less than Ush10 million turnover would pay Ush250,000.

The bill made it mandatory for every local authority, government institution or regulatory body to require a TIN from any person applying for a license or any form of authorization necessary for conducting business in Uganda. The URA partnership with Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA) and the Uganda Registration Services Bureau (URSB) has already registered many new taxpayers since its inception. This partnership is among many changes aimed at ensuring more people shoulder the tax burden instead of the current few.

Excerpts from PWC’s Tax watch, Tax Amendment Bills – 2015




A bill is a draft of an Act of parliament and includes both a private member’s Bill and a Government Bill. Simply put, a Bill is that document before Parliament passes it into Law. E.g Anti- Homosexuality Bill which has now become the Anti- Homosexuality Law.


Under Article 79(1) of the Constitution of Uganda, parliament shall have the power to make the Laws on any matter for the peace, order, development and good governance of Uganda”. A private member’s Bill is moved by a backbench MP and not by Government e.g the Anti- Homo Bill was moved by MP Bahati.


1. A Committee chairperson moves motion seeking leave (permission) to present this Private Member’s Bill after which that Chairperson produces the proposed draft of the Bill.

2. Members of Parliament then debate and vote on motion. If the MPs reject the motion, then the private member’s Bill is dropped.

However, if the motion is approved, then Parliament will print and publish the Bill.

3. The Bill is published in the Gazette. The Gazette is the official government publication. After it has been Published in the gazette, it is said the Bill has been “Gazetted”.


4. After the gazette, the Private member’s Bill is introduced for the first reading accompanied by certificate of financial implication.

5. After the bill is introduced, the Speaker refers it to appropriate committee.

6. The Committee Committee scrutinizes Bill.

7. The Committee then calls responsible mover(s) of the Bill and various stakeholders and government in public hearings.

8. The Committee will also review relevant and related laws/documents and then write a report with proposed amendments to the plenary. It should be noted that in such circumstances, the committee can only propose amendments and changes to the bill BUT cannot make those changes directly. Those changes can only be made through the following steps:


9. The Movers of the Bill e.g MP Bahati for the Anti- Homosexuality Bill moves and justifies the motion for second Reading of the Bill.

10. The Committee chairperson presents a report on the Bill.

11. MPs then debate committee report on principles of the Bill and then Parliament votes for second Reading of the Bill referred to the committee of the whole house

12. After this stage, the Bill is then sent to the Committee of the Whole house, which means a committee composed of all the Mps headed by the Speaker, in case of the current Parliament, Speaker

13. MPs in charge of Bill then ask plenary to resume and then goes ahead to Report outcome of committee of the whole house


14. Parliament the votes for Third Reading of the Bill and if approved, it is sent to the Clerk’s office.

15. The Clerk to Parliament then prepares copies for authentication and Assent of the president.

16. Basically, the president just has to sign the Bill after this stage to make it Law.

17. After the passing of the Third Reading, then the BILL officially becomes an ACT of Law and is no longer referred to as a Bill. E.g From Anti- Homosexuality Bill to Anti- Homosexuality Act.

18. After signing the Act i.e Assenting to the Act, then it becomes law.


20. After the President Assents, then the Minister Responsible sets a date when the law will come into effect. E.g the Public Order Management Act was signed by the President, but since the Minister has not yet set a Commencement Date, it is not yet Law Applicable.

21. Afterwards, the Law is then Published in the Uganda Gazette and becomes Law Applicable, which means it comes into force.

What if Museveni intentionally let the opposition win the so-called by-elections that made Bobi someone to be talked about?

By Abbey Kibirige Semuwemba

Zugzwang— it’s a chess term describing the obligation to make a move even though any move will weaken one ‘s position. Generally, it’s an indication that the play has moved into the end game. The narrow-minded spectators would call a would-be loser ” contagious “, ‘’powerful’’, ‘’threat’, or all sorts of names praising him, but when in actual sense, he is losing.

I am strongly inclined to believe that Museveni intentionally let the opposition win the so-called 2018-19 by-elections that made Bobi Wine someone to be talked about. What is it they say? Lose the battle and win the war. They also say that the most powerful warriors are patience and timing. He used the by-elections as foreplay to his intention to weaken the opposition.

Let’s remember that during the by-elections, both Kiiza Besigye and Bobi supported different candidates, and Bobi had one leg over Besigye. Bugiri and Arua, were the epitome of it all where Asuman Basalirwa(JEEMA) and Kasiano Wadri(former FDC), both backed by Bobi, won, against FDC candidates. Museveni is rarely off his game. He has always let opposition win some and lose a lot. This was something else, and I bet he was up to something. His enemies have always underestimated him, and have refused to think like him–he is good at stiffling opponents, love him or hate him.In business, one of the ways of promoting a business is to get your rival to sue you and announce it on TV. By the time the dust settles down, everyone has heard of your business. It’s nasty but it works. It’s a very good marketing strategy.

It’s also possible that Museveni has been controlling the number of MPs FDC get every year, since their numbers never change. He, I guess, keeps them at a certain level that won’t bring him problems in the parliament. Like Besigye keeps telling the world, ‘the Electoral Commission is like his walking stick’.

All the theories around Dr. Kiiza Besigye being part of the ‘managed’ opposition don’t add up because of simply one factor– Winnie Byanyima. No man makes deals with another man who took his woman, ex or not.

I also think we must make a distinction between ordinary people with very little clout who had to do what they had to do to oppose Museveni and celebrities who ended up singing political songs to further their career. It happened a lot during Nazi German —About this, you might want to see the movie “Mephisto” or read the book on which it is based. So, it’s possible that Museveni may have picked Bobi, without Bobi’s knowledge, as a stick to beat his long-term rival with, and indeed, it worked. Now, all he needs is to pick another stick, or sticks, to beat Bobi with, and he is doing exactly that.

Bobi is now caught between a rock and the proverbial before the 2021 elections, and for me, at least, I can understand why he might end up either starting a political party, or join DP, if not quietly quit politics altogether. If he is to quit politics, he will have to secretly arrange a meeting with Museveni assuring him of this.

A while ago I was reading the book, The Shirakawa book “The Devil’s Music Master”, about music in Nazi Germany. It consists of biographies of several composers. Makes very interesting readings. The author gives Karl Hartmann as an example of composer who hated Nazis, decided not to collaborate with them, and yet didn’t have any problems either. Just kept low profile and survived. It was those who wanted to prosper, to make a career, pure opportunists such as Orf, who collaborated with the regime.

Bobi is, obviously, going to go ahead and participate in the presidential elections, even though he knows he can’t win. He feels that this is his best bet for his career, ego, and, I guess, to satisfy the longing to be the big man in opposition. But he really didn’t have a clue as to the trap he was walking into, if my theory is right that Museveni intentionally wanted to boost his image against Besigye in by-elections. He will continue to treat him like a star until he becomes a normal Citizen and then they slam the door shut.

The issue that’s never really been addressed enough, or at least that I don’t understand enough is why DP thought Bobi’s attacks against Besigye at the DP reunion, would benefit DP in anyway. In the end, they parted ways and every man is now on his own. Maybe “us” aren’t as different from “them” as we’d like to think we are.

All of the above, of course, is just my opinion. No offence is intended to those who disagree.

Kabaka’s land is 350sq.miles

Kabaka’s land is 350sq.miles. It is located in the different counties of Buganda. Kabaka’s land is titled. What happens however, is that most people who live on it have no land titles as historically, people were not getting titles on Kabaka’s land. They would have bibanja and pay busuulu and ENVUJJO. However, Ssekabaka Muteesa opened up the land and people started getting titles. Kabaka Mutebi continued with having people getting land titles. Buganda Land Board has therefore been issuing land titles to those who apply and qualify to get them.

What are the likely effects of not getting a title on kabaka’s land if I pay busuulu?

Ideally you are protected by law and BLB or the Kabaka are satisfied with your occupancy. However, that may not protect you from the following: 1. In cases of boundary and ownership conflicts, instead of relying on surveyors to open boundaries for titled land-that will not be possible with you. We shall need evidence of neighbours, natural vegetation, hills, etc and all other such marks that define your kibanja. In cases of compulsory acquisition of land by govt for govt projects like roads, electricity lines, etc you are only compensated the fair eqivalent of a kibanja owner. If you have a land title, then you get compensated for more. Also getting a mortgage from a bank or loan is constrained. Banks find ndagano or sales agreement for your kibanja as weak collateral. Finally, your kibanja is always under threat by a neighbor who could one day extend their boundaries into you, or could actually survey and include your kibanja into being part of their land. They would then choose to resurrect this and claim your kibanja at your demise.

if you’re within the precincts of an urban authority like KCCA and Wakiso, your plan will not be approved without a title. If you proceed and build without authorization, you’ll get problems from their compliance teams who can demolish your structure. Building without authorization is illegal and you can face penalties. These can include fees or demolitions. So this applies to any construction whether on Kabaka’s land or not. Payment of penalties does even exonerate you from the need to acquire an approved building plan. Needless to say, you need the landlords consent or proof of a land title before such approvals.

Many major organisations have both workers and impersonators who fraudulently extract money from unsuspecting victims. As a rule, Buganda Land Board fees are all paid in the bank.

What is mailo land?

Mailo land is just a Luganda word for land in miles. In the 1900 agreement, land was allocated in square miles. The Baganda called it Mailo, a translation of mile.

There is what is called private mailo ( the 8000 plus sq miles which were shared by private land owners and chiefs) Then there’s official mailo. That is land which was allocated to offices of Buganda.I.e counties, Kabaka, Namasole, Katikkiro, Omuwanika. That land can not be sold off in perpetuity.

What is ‘Busulu’??

Busuulu is the nominal fee one pays for living on one’s land annually. In villages, it is 5000ugx. In town boards, 30,000ugx. In Municipalities, it is 40,0000ugx. In Cities, it is 50,0000ugx.

When constructing, you only pay consent to develop if you already, Kanzu was already paid when you were buying. If not, you are then required to pay consent to develop and Kanzu. To pay consent to develop, in Kampala and Wakiso, you need to submit your building plan, and your ownership documentation.

The busuulu fees mentioned above were determined by the Minister of Lands and District Land Boards in the different areas. You need an approved building plan before u start constructing be it Kabaka’s land or not. The urban authorities have enforcement teams that check on none Compliance. BLB works in collaboration or support with the enforcement teams. In some cases, BLB has signed MOUs with urban authorities to carry out enforcement activities. Such teams can Confiscate building materials on behalf of the town councils, municipality or planning authorities. They can also require you to pay penalties. Payment of penalties such as 300k doesn’t mean that you are then free to construct. You still have got to pay for plan approvals.

The most important process is getting consent to build from BLB. It is that clearance that the urban council depends on to approve your plan especially if you have no land title. If your plan was approved without it, I ask that you get it to avoid future disturbances.

Why is Buganda Land Board keen on helping urban councils enforce the building rules?

1. It is fathomed that enforcing the rule of building with approved plans will eliminate slums off Kabaka’s land. Kabaka’s land is grappling with slums. Slums reduce the value of the Land; affecting both Buganda kingdom and the tenants especially at time of selling, mortgaging, compensations. Slums also proliferate crime, disease.

2. Building with approved plans acts as a gatekeeper against land/bibanja grabbers since for one to get an approved plan, proof of ownership of the land/kibanja they are to build on is the first requirement.

Can a foreigner have rights on Kabaka’s Land?

Yes. A foreigner can get a lease land title on Kabaka’s land. All foreigners by law are supposed to be leaseholders. What to know on Kabaka’ land.

1. If you are buying a Kibanja on Kabaka’s land, ensure that whoever sells to you pays Kanzu (consent to sell). If they don’t pay it, you end up paying it since the law states that if a kibanja is exchanged without a consent from the land Lord, the transaction is null and void. However, Buganda Land Board gives the buyer a chance to pay for the consent if the seller never paid for it. To avoid the one selling to you the Kibanja running away with the consent to sell(Kanzu), make sure that the transaction takes place at the office of Buganda Land Board.

2. When buying a Kibanja, ensure that you get EBBALUWA ENTONGOLE from Buganda Land Board. EBBALUWA ENTONGOLE confirms transfer of the Kibanja ownership from the one who sold to you into your names. If that is not done, someone can turn around and claim ownership of a Kibanja they already sold to you.

3.If you live on Kabaka’s land, register it with Buganda Land Board. That helps you to secure your kibanja from being claimed by anyone else.

4.You can get a land title on Kabaka’s land through banks using a product called Lease Access Financial Initiative. The advantage with that, banks finance you to get the land title. They then also give you money to develop your land. The, a repayment plan is drawn. It is always easy to pay back a loan when you have a source of income.

People are using this to build rentals, schools, factories, ware houses.

The land title is a lease with automatic renewal. If you get a 99yr automatic renewal lease, to me, it is more less like absolute ownership.

How big should land be to qualify as ”ekibanja”?

Ideally, a Kibanja shouldn’t go beyond 5 acres. Historically, a Kibanja comprised of where you live and cultivate from. Where you stopped cultivating, is where your kibanja ended. Any unused space, acreage then was taken over by the land lord.

However, today, no matter the acreage, the moment you live on any land without having a land title, it means you hold a Kibanja on someone’s land ( the one who owns the land title). However, to have legal protection against eviction, you must be a bonafide kibanja holder or a lawful kibanja holder.

A bonafide kibanja holder is one who lived on a piece of land 15yrs before the 1995 constitution was promulgated.

A lawful kibanja holder is one who came on land as a result of the 1921 Busuulu and envujjo law, or who lawfully bought from a lawful, bonafide kibanja owner, or one who gets recognised by the land lord.

If you buy a Kibanja without the consent of the landlord, you cease being a kibanja holder. You become an enchroacher who has no protection under the law. The landlord can therefore evict you any time they wish.

If one has a plot,how can one go about it (secure) ??

First by registering with BLB. You can then choose to pay busuulu or get a land title. To register with BLB

Holders of leasehold titles pay annual ground rent. None title holders pay annual busuulu. The latter is as determined by govt.

I have registered land twice on Kabaka’s land.What do i do?

I have registered my land twice. Every after a year or so a new company comes and registers and takes money.

Land is registered once. The only time land was registered by another party other than Buganda Land Board was when KK registered. However, those who registered with KK were never asked to register again. They were asked to present their receipts. The other registration which was done was after the KK registration and it aimed at those who had not registered plus those who wished to have their land surveyed.

If you registered already, just go to Buganda Land Board and confirm your registration number.

All Buganda Land Board employees have Identity cards. And they are normally required to move with them, placed on their body where they can be seen. Other than the kk registration that happened in 2007-2008, and confined in Makindye Ssabagabo area, the other campaigns on registration were actually for people who had not registered at all. But it so happens that each time people hear about any new registration campaign, they get registered again. Please always keep away from such double or multiple registrations. You only need to register once!!

Do I get absolute ownership or its a lease?

No you dont get absolute ownership. BLB only offers leases. This is what is known as sustainable management of land. We need our decendants and great great decendants to find the land available for them to lease too. Kabaka’s land sis official mailo land and is not given in perpetuity. But you can get a 99 yr old lease. Anyone can get 99yrs as long as they qualify and have applied for it. It is 45 years but if you so desire to acquire a 99 year lease you just put in a formal request and you will be guided.

Whoever registered with Buganda Land board and has documents or receipts as proof, feel free to visit any of their branches to ascertain your status. Some of the BLB offices include– Nansana branch next to kibuloka stage at nakuule, ndejje at the lufuka grounds namasuba-zana, makindye next to makindye court and kibuga branch at muganzirwazza building katwe.
Outside kampala is MUKONO branch, luweero branch, Mpigi branch, masaka branch,njeru branch,Mityana branch and out reaches at mubende, sembabule,kasangati, lyantonde, Ssesse,among others .You just go to any of Buganda Land Board offices, pay a search fee, and the search is done for you. A search will help you know whether the Kibanja is registered or not, whom it belongs to, any mortgage incumbrancies on it, disputes……actually, any body buying a kibanja on Kabaka’s land would avoid losing their money by first carrying out a search.

Key to note too when you register your plot in BLB, a file is opened up in your names and documents filed. The client is given a file number which is your reference every time you come. Feel free to consult any branch about your file. With all the payments made, a copy of the receipt is filed. Regularize your tenancy and develop your land happily.

There are no strict or written regulations against buying land but the following clues can help

By Kizito Bashir Juma

There are no strict or written regulations against buying land but the following clues can help:
1. Determine the intended use of the land. This will guide you on the location and size of land you need. Do you intend to erect rentals?who are your intended market? Could they own cars or need to use taxis? What’s the land proximity to public means? Do you intend to have it as your own home?office?farming?etc

2. Due Diligence
Carry out as much research about the land and it’s owners as possible. I understand that it’s a good deal so u have to be fast. But then your earned money shouldn’t be wasted. Strike a balance.
a)Carry out a legal search if the land is titled land. What kind of title is it? A freehold,customary, leasehold or mailo title? Check to see the lease terms and remaining duration of the lease if it’s a leasehold. Check to see if terms permit your intended use?Check with issuing lesor if the seller hasn’t any outstanding balances on ground rent, etc Find out the registered proprietor of the land.
b)Request a land surveyor to open boundaries of this land. Insist with the landlord that this happens. Quite often quoted sizes on land titles don’t tally with the actual physical size. Further, the land could have poor or no gazetted access, or has a running trench, drain, overhead power lines, could be sitting on a sewer, could have an access road running through it, could be part of already gazetted land for road works, a large chunk could be part of an existing road or public utility like well, etc The boundary opening will guide you further on if the land has any existing squatters or boundary conflict with neighbours.
c) Insist on seeing the real registered proprietor or their legal attorneys. These should have powers of attorneys. Don’t mind asking to look at their ID. It’s your money you know!!!!! Try to relate the details on ID with the legal search results.
d)Try as much as possible to visit the land and inspect it fully before you part with your money. Do you see any house, garden,etc Ask those questions. Quite often people buy and inspect later-what a waste!!!
e)Again if it’s titled land, is it family land? Does it have an ancestral, or matrimonial home on it, does the seller appear to be deriving economic sustainance from it(eg does intending seller til it for home consumption?), please ensure that you get the necessary consents (spousal, children,etc) The law demands so!
f) Insist on having a look at the duplicate (or what most people refer to as original land title certificate). See that there’s a seal, and some features of a genuine land title. A seasoned surveyor or lawyer will guide you on verifying signatures on it since most of these people are known to them.
g)Are you purchasing part of the land or the whole? If it’s part of it, negotiate to pay in installments, as preceded by survey and title progress. The seller should be able to sign a mutation form,part with a copy of their ID, 3 passport photos and copy of land title. This will enable a surveyor execute the first part of titling your land. After that stage, the owner should be able to part with the original title, and transfer forms.
h) check with the surveyor to see that the size of land you want to purchase is admissible for titling. Planning requirements can fail your ambitions. Eg in KCCA scope, the minimum plot requirement is an equivalent of 100′ by 65′ and not your usual 100′ by 50
I)Move about and talk to neighbors and LCs for any clues or leads about this land. Note: It shouldn’t be those introduced to you but those you have inquired and been directed to.

3. If it’s not titled land, Kibanja, please find out the registered proprietor of that land. Is it the Kabaka, Church, Mosque,etc You need their consent to purchase this land or your purchase will be at risk. More diligence here is required to vet ownership.

Know The Vendor. Satisfy yourself that the seller is the legitimate owner of the land and that they have the power to sell. One can be known to own such land but without the power to sell it. Administrators may not necessarily have the authority to sell. So ask such questions from neighbors and local authorities to get deserving answers.

The number of years I have been in this field i have realised that there is a tendency for vendors to present photocopies to buyers for them to check with the land offices whether the land is free of incumbrances.

Now here lies a time Bomb!. Of course the buyer’s lawyer or himself will go to the land office and check say Plot 30 block 789 and the information will in most cases march with the photocopy details and the land may be free of any claims. Then at the time of buying you are presented with a fake title and on reaching the land office for transfer of the same, you are told that the presented title is forged !!!! So as a matter of precaution my friends always seek to have a look at the original Title and if possible present the same at the land office for verification otherwise a simple search statement may not be enough to guarantee genuineness

Mulago hospital was built by the British and expanded by Iddi Amin!

Dr. Emmanuel Lumu, first Ugandan Minister of Health, welcoming Sir Edward Mutesa, President of the Republic of newly independent Uganda, to the opening of New Mulago Hospital, October 1962. Duchess of York to the left.

On 16 October 1972, 10 years after it was opened, then President Idi Amin marked the anniversary by visiting Mulago Hospital to see patients. The expulsion of Asians, including a sizable proportion of senior medical staff, was already well underway.


Gen Tumwine’s house in his village

By William Ekwelu via UAH forum

In African traditional society every male must have a home in his ancestors village to be called a man, see in future years you may want to retire home upcountry when you nolonger have money to build a house.

I have seen many rich guy in cities being ashamed in an even they loose a loved one and they want to go to village for burrial, you find they don’t have even a road to reach the ramshackled house. Therefore it’s good to put a house in the village regardless of whether it’s profitable or not. We all eventually end up in our villages dead or alive, so a village house is necessary, especially if your parents don’t have a decent home. It just shouldn’t be a very big house if you are on a tight budget and should be done after the town house.

Put up a project there like goat rearing, chicken, pigs… that will implore you to visit more often… we some times don’t go to the ‘village’ because there’s nothing there.

Homes whether in Kampala or village are not for economic purposes. The sentimental value can’t be quantified. If u r to go by economical, u may not need tiles in your house neither do u need more than one pair of shoes. Something are done coz of a value attached that is not financial. As Africans, we should stop thinking of R.I.O at all times. The people who built Europe and America, or any other of the countries that we run to for greener pastures never had any returns on investment but their great grandchildren are benefitting from their sacrifice.

A home in the village is a good thing. This encourages people to have regular visits to parents without the worry of sleeping relatives’ homes. Even President Museveni has Rwakitura and the George Bush family has KenneBunk Port. Ugandans do not realize most citizens of the world are not land owners. In Uganda it is almost 100%. All land is invaluable

TREASURY BILLS and BONDS and how one can gain from them investment wise

Make Money with Idle Money – Part 1

Do you have a sum of money ‘lying-idle’ in a bank account waiting for a future date for it to be used? You can use it to earn you more money as you wait, other wise idle money in your savings accounts make the banks rich.

For instance you may not need the money for another 3 months or so but you cannot afford to lose it, this means that you need a risk free investment. There are probably very few investments that can be classified as safe and risk free. This is what makes investing in government securities (Treasury Bills and Bonds) a very attractive prospect, especially for conservative investors.Currently the yields (interest) ranges between 12% to 16%. You can get updates on the Bank of Uganda website for those investing in Uganda.

For short term cash flow management, investing in Treasury Bills is a good option to consider and earn a reasonable interest. You can time the maturity dates to when the funds will be needed. Treasury Bills are structured in three maturities: 91-days, 182-days and 364-days and issued every fortnight. Treasury Bills are government security and are issued at a discount and offer a competitive rate of return.

You can invest in the Bank of Uganda (BoU) Treasury bills with a minimum of Ugx100,000. The sum invested should be in Bids must be in multiples of Ugx100,000. Bid volumes ranging between Ugx100,000 and Ugx200,000,000 are classified as non-competitive. Bid volumes of Ugx200,100,000 or more are classified as competitive.

The difference between competitive and non-competitive bids is that with the former, you must indicate the rate/price you would like to earn on your money invested and the bid must be above Ugx200M. On the other hand, non-competitive bids range from Ugx100, 000 to Ugx200M and the investor does not choose his own interest rate when bidding; non-competitive bidders take a market determined average rate from the auction. In this regard, all bids must be submitted through a primary dealer and must reach the BOU headquarters by 10.00am on the day of the auction.

Regarding payment, all successful bids must be paid for on the next business day after the auction. The primary dealer is responsible for payment of all the bids of his participants (individuals and organisations).

What you need to do is open a Central Depository System (CDS) account at Bank of Uganda by filling CDS Form 1, CDS Form 7, CDS Form 9A/B, CDS Form 8(if it’s an organisation) and sign a CDS Dealing Agreement. You then have to submit these account opening forms through your primary dealer bank for their endorsement and know-your-customer purposes. These forms are available at BOU website as well as from the primary dealer banks.

To participate in an auction, a registered investor submits bid orders through a primary dealer. These are commercial banks appointed by BOU and include: Stanbic Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, Barclays Bank, dfcu bank, Bank of Baroda and Centenary Bank.

• They offer a competitive rate of return
• They are risk-free instruments
• Saving mechanism
• They are very liquid; can easily be sold in the secondary market
• They can be pledged as collateral for borrowing

“Guard thy treasure from loss by investing only where thy principal is safe, where it may be reclaimed if desirable, and where thou will not fail to collect a fair rental (interest)” George Samuel Clason

To your success!

Visit Capital Markets Authority at IPS building, 7th floor and someone there will enlighten you on what you want to know…. Or better still, visit Uganda Securities Exchange

Is Property in Uganda worth their price tags?

5 bedroom Mansion in Ntinda, Uganda

By Edris Kiggundu via Facebook

Yesterday my friend Denis Jjuuko, posted something.He wondered why it is cheaper to buy a house in California, USA than to buy a PLOT of land in Kololo or Munyonyo

I grew up in Ntinda-Kigowa from the late 1980s till 2004 when I left home to start my life. My father bought that piece of land (roughly half an acre) in the early 80s when I had just been born. Even when it was located in a prime place (just below Kalinabiri Schools) and serviced by a tarmac road, it did not cost him more than Shs 5 million (using today’s monetary value). Until about 2009, there was still an empty plot not far away from Mzee’s land. It was small (roughly 50 ft by 70 ft) and belonged to someone who had decided to relocate overseas.The plot was eventually snapped up by a prominent personality who I was told paid a cool Shs 900 million for that small strip of land. He has since put up a nice block of apartments (six in total) but you can hardly park two cars in the compound. I remember telling Mzee that I thought the figure (Shs 900 million) was very inflated. He asked me what the value should have been. I told him not more than Shs 150 million.

“But this is Nitinda,” he retorted. “Not Kiwatule or Najjera.”

I thought to myself: What is so magical about Ntinda?

Nothing apart from the historical name and presumed close proximity to the city (which is also cancelled out by the nasty traffic jam).While Ntinda is fairly better planned than so many up coming suburbs, it still has potholed, narrow access roads. There are pockets of insecurity and congestion has set in as offices set up shop there. Yet you constantly hear that newly built houses in Ntinda are going for $1 million and wonder the justification for the prices.

When we went to Ntinda in 1987, Most of Naguru was a big bush and was sparsely populated. Land there was cheaper than Ntinda.
Naguru is now considered very prime and you hear plots of land going for $2 million. You would be lucky to find one.

Why would I buy an empty plot of land in Naguru for $ 2 million (minus the costs of grading it) and yet for the same money, I could buy four fully furnished two-bedroom apartments in Dubai ( each at $500,000) and start earning from them immediately?

Would you rather buy the house in the potholed Bunga for $1 million or use that money to buy at least two three bedroomed fully furnished houses in Palm Jumeirah?

Piggy Banks should be encouraged to Kids

By William Ekwelu via UAH forum

I see some people talking about saving in a piggy bank of sorts and looking for expensive ones to buy for themselves and their kids. I personally prefer well decorated piggy banks. They make saving coins fun. U just open waiting for the surprise.

Very cheap options include but are not limited to:
1. A 3-litre cooking oil jerrican.
2. A large soda bottle.
3. Water dispenser bottle

For jerrican and soda bottle, you can put super glue in the lid and then screw it on so that you can’t open it easily, then make a slit in the side to insert your money.

No need to spend much to save or teach the kids to save. this can be a stepping stone to that. I know someone who uses this method with the kids and then they open it and deposit it with the child in the child’s bank account.

A locally made piggy bank or usually “ka box” is not expensive. It costs much less than a big soda. Remember those water dispenser bottles are re-usable, it is not easy to land at one that has been disposed off.

And I think the idea is not to have your money in a transparent container, that could tempt you to get it out and sort a problem

ʟᴇᴛ’s ᴛʜɪɴᴋ ᴀʙᴏᴜᴛ ᴛʜɪs

The moment you get out of bed, wash your face, water Company Ltd. National water and sewerage will be reading their meters. You brush your teeth, Mukwano or Colgate will be earning on you. When you Charge your phone UMEME will be reading their meter. When you move from your house to the office, taxi owners,are making money on you .
If u are driving Petrol Station Owners will be collecting their shares and when you check your WhatsApp, Facebook and other social media, MTN, Africell and Airtel will be making money on you!

So before you get out of the house you have already paid all these companies something. You have already spent money.
Let’s not even talk about the rest of the day.
So if you are going to bed without making money, how are you going to manage all these bills??

Do something about your life today.
Start thinking about how to make money everyday. Think Residual Income Start with a small targeted amount and grow as you go. Start with something that will give u even if its 500 Ug shillings a day. Its better than going to bed without making even a 1000 shillings
Let’s Put our faith into action, take risks and start something!

SALARY alone can not solve your money problems. You need Secondary Source of income to balance.
SALARY is a MEDICINE for managing POVERTY, it doesn’t CURE it. Only your BUSINESS or INVESTMENTS Cures Poverty.
Be Financially Intelligent… Have a Plan B

That house you renting is not yours

Nice Bungalow House In Uganda

That house you renting is not yours..Dont buy expensive things for it..u buy a plasma tv At 2m those are 20.000 bricks..u buy leather chairs at 3m thats a deposit on a plot of land in case u want to make bricks on it u save the 2m..U have a smartphone of 1m those are 30 bags of cement..u buy a fridge u rarely use at 1.5m those are as many iron sheets etc..My advice is save as much as possible before u spend..U can also own a good home. I rather own a 1-room house than driving a 20m car parked at landlord’s place.

We all know money has a corrupting and diverting aura making all priorities options and options priorities – wc I must add is the devil at work. Then after we hit a streak of low down, the words “I wish” become our most used words for the rest of our lives. Imagine there r even plots of land at 3m and we outrightly go for the killer jackpot of renting a 500 to 800k apartment, driving a 20m car, and those other unnecessary accessories u mentioned. And all coz most times its to impress a girl or friends. A good spiritual foundation allows us see that most of the things we spend our money on either don’t glorify the LORD, are dangerous to our lives or are very unnecessary.

Copied from UAH Facebook forum

Nothing is as expensive as poverty

Nothing is as expensive as poverty. When you are poor, you basically pay more for everything. It is a prison that charges you rent for being under arrest.

I used to think it was cheaper to be poor. Now I realize it is the most expensive thing in the world. Number one reason most relationships break up? Money.

When you are poor, you can’t even run a relationship let alone a friendship. You are in a super trap.

Poor people cannot even get a bank loan. Like what are you even going to stake there? Your life? Poor people can’t even have an opinion. No one even laughs at a poor man’s joke. But for a rich man, all his jokes are ever funny.

Poverty charges interests on everything. You live in a place that floods when it rains. Now you can’t even do anything else the next morning except wake up and clean up the mess. You set up an appointment, it rains and you can’t even make it their on time.

You buy a cheap shoe, before long, it is worn out. Now you have to buy another shoe. A taxi decides to charge more, now you have to wait on the stage until a cheaper one comes along. There you go, time gone and by the time you arrive where you are headed, the opportunitu has passed.

Guess who gets the discounts? It is the rich who buy in bulk. You have no idea how everything is cheap when you can buy it in bulk.

Guess which cars are flagged down by the traffic officers? It is the cheap cars. It is very rare to see a Range Rover flagged down. What is there to even discuss? Now you are driving your tattered car, you are flagged down, you have to part with something. Before you know it all, you can’t even pay off the mechanic.

If there is one mission for a man in life, it is to escape the poverty trap as fast as possible. It is like there is tax for being poor. You basically pay a service fee for being poor.

Bottom Line: Don’t be poor. You end up as the in-law who fetches water and firewood at a funeral.

Poverty robs you of choices in life. A poor man never gets to choose. The choices are already made. Your kids will still go to the same fake schools, taught by fake teachers and then guess what? No one will even think about them when an opportunity strikes.

Poverty steals all options in life. Wondering where to hold your wedding? Nigga you can’t even wonder, you can be certain it is going to be some fake gardens. No one even wants to turn up for a poor man’s wedding meeting.

What’s even worse, when there is an ‘opportunity’, it is always a scam disguised as an opportunity. You think there is any rich man losing money in a Development Channel. Never! It is still the poor people’s money. It is much easier to scam a poor man than a rich man. Because a poor man is on the wall, he is desperate. He is ready to do anything.

Poverty is the most expensive thing!!!🤷‍♂🤷‍♂🤷‍♂🤷‍♂🤷‍♂😭😭😭😭😭


An LC 1 chairperson should not charge witness fees to witness your land transaction.

An LC 1 chairperson should not charge witness fees to witness your land transaction.

If it is a kibanja purchase, look for the landlord to give consent and witness the transaction for it is against the law to carry out a transaction on land without the consent of the land lord. In fact, the transaction is rendered null and void and the kibanja reverts back to the land lord thus the purchaser losing both the kibanja and their money.(In case of Kabaka’s land, have Buganda Land Board as the witness).

If it is titled land, do a proper search, and go on with your transaction using any witness you are comfortable with(it is not a must to have a witness. Just have a proper title transfer effected)

The 10% given to LC 1s drives corruption and fraud in transactions as they seek to earn more by purporting to witness multiple transactions on the same piece of Land……… The role of the LC is always to witness and make the Ndagaano.Both buyer and seller give akasiimo. Maybe 100k from buyer n 50k from seller.

A good house,not a car, is a measure and symbol of wealth

Bebe Cool’s car

The car used to be a symbol of status but its not anymore.  Let me explain. Go back to Uganda in time and even in the west. Which people drove cars in the 1950s and 60s in Uganda? I mean the Zephyrs, Peugeots and other kapyatas/big cars etc.? They were people of means and high standing in society. The Ugandans who drove them were Ssaza chiefs, mostly, and may be some sub county chiefs across the country. And they drove those cars with decorum and ultimate respect for other road users.

The car Museveni donated to Bebe Cool as NRM mobiliser

Fast forward today. A car is no longer a status symbol. Every muyaye/crook,not  just in Uganda, but here out west where many of us now live, can afford to drive almost any car model.  Some are engaged in illegal activities such as drugs so the first thing they do is buy car . It may be the top range -chose your pick.  Some work very hard including multiple jobs to buy that much desired car.  Again, to use Ugandan speak, many do so in the “mundabye” -do you see me now mentality. That is why a car in the west and even in Uganda or Africa is no longer status symbol. 

Bobi Wine poses infront of his car in 2013.Robert Ssentamu Kyagulanyi also known as Bobi Wine, is an artiste and is also into business

There was a time when you saw someone driving a Mercedes Benz, you knew they were people of some standing in society. They drove those cars without too much noise. They respected traffic rules and other road users. Not anymore.  A person driving the latest Mercedes or even Bentley can be a drug pusher, a criminal involved in human trafficking of African women from Nigeria. Yes, Nigeria leads in Human trafficking among African countries.  That person could be a cone  man who has used tricks to steal from elderly women in the west. Occasionally the person could be a celebrity, mostly likely sports person.

And yes professionals too still opt for huge high end cars and you can tell by the way they behave and move around with humility.

But many drivers of what used to be status car symbols are outright crooks, criminals, thugs/bayaye/cone men etc.  They are the type of people who have no respect for rules. For example, when they go restaurants or even bar have signs: ‘wait to be seated’, they simply ignore and move in and sit themselves. In other words,  how do I put this without sounding condescending or elitist: in Uganda speak full of amalo/ignorance.

Btw, because anyone can afford almost any car , you sometimes hear them say with pride, oh, out here we are equal. Not quite.
Some go out of the way to try and cone, okay impress new arrivals in the west that they made it so they rent cars. Yes. And for many new arrivals they cannot tell between rented cars and personal car. Who is targeted?  With humility let me say and it hurts me, our sisters many of whom fall for such trickery. I have met way too many University educated women from developing countries taken advantage of  by outright cone men and crooks with almost no education. The only thing they had is money, almost always acquired through illegal means especially drugs.  Let us not sugar coat  issues.

So to speak to the headline, in Africa in particular and I dare say even in the west, a good house more than anything is a measure and symbol of wealth.  Many of the crooks driving around expensive cars with loud music in western cities are most likely to live in rented places or may be condos. 
To be blunt, I personally do not give damn the type of car one drives, but I respect individuals with good homes especially if they own  them. In any case  a home appreciates in value whereas a car, any car only depreciates in value.

Here in west I have CEO of global  institution take public transport. They simply hope on the subway and off they go. No big deal.  Occasionally I have encountered sports uper starts on ublic transport. They hope on the subway/train and off they go.

Acquire a house first, and then buy whatever expensive car you want

A bird’s view of Sudhir’s house in Uganda

By Edward Pojim via UAH forum,

Most times, vanity, not economic prowess, is the reason folks have luxurious cars.This is even more so in the west, and especially among men between 21 and 35. They believe that an expensive car validates them, or adds to their personality, thus making them more attractive during their mate-hunting period.They drive $50K cars, but live in a walk-up apartment with no covered parking.

They pay $500 a month in car payment, yet their take-home pay is only $2,000. So, these type of people are feeding their egos, giving the impression that they are top earners.

Back in Uganda, some have stolen BIG, and have wisely used their loot to acquire impressive homes. Which makes sense, because if you live in $2M house in Kololo, you don’t want a 1995 Toyota Camry parked in your driveway!

So, my advice is simple: acquire a house first, and then buy whatever expensive car you want. Unless you steal BIG, in which case, do as you please because that’s not your money.

Cars speak volumes about one’s wealth but can be equally deceiving

Hyundai Palisade 2019

By Peter Gwokto via UAH forum

In Botswana,Up or down there people cruise in very expensive cars – Mercs and Beamers as they refer to Mercedes and BMW – but very few park them next to equally deserving houses.

In case you didn’t know gas or petrol is least expensive in Botswana than in all southern Africa countries – moreover landlocked. Subsidized to near free fir a population of 2.3 million people. The whole of Botswana’s Motswane can reside in Greater Kampala alone. Gabarone the capital has a population of 208,000

Adding to this, one might think the SA Rand is most strong southern africa currency.Nope.It’s the Botswana Pula, and Pula means rain in Tsetswana. Its the one country where rain is worshiped more than the plentiful diamonds – Kalahari desert. That’s why rain is valued. The Rand has never beaten the Pula.

But dont be shocked following a luxurious car only to find it spending the night besides or in front of a shack.

Cars speak volumes about one’s wealth but can be equally deceiving. Their upside is that they can move and cover the truth.It’s like equating a fat belly dude at a Malwa/Pork joint to plenty of food in his house. Not always true. Go to his house and see how bony his family members are.

This is the Real Reason why Museveni has lasted that long in power!


Nobody could have imagined that Museveni(YKM) would stay that long especially given Uganda’s history. He did it because he personalized the military, which is still on his side.But he also did something to buy peace-read, hoodwink Ugandans. He gave them space to do anything but oppose him or take up arms. He gave them a lot of leisure to roam around doing nothing productive. He talked tough against colonialism and its policies as oppressive and backward. So he did away with poll tax to win favour with the working class men in Uganda.

The majority of Ugandans seem to suffer from a false sense of consciousness so they celebrated even though YKM was actually undermining their self dignity and worthy in Ugandan society. YKM has lasted because many delusional Ugandans wrongly believed he gave them a free ride in life. Wapi. There is no free lunch. YKM remains president as many now languish in bad state.Uganda comes close to the tragedy of the commons.

Uganda is also a puzzle. YKM remains popular among rural masses and some elite not interested in politics who adore him as their “Mzeei”. The mases are generally happy. Once formidable opponents such as Dr Besigye are not sure anymore.

See what happened to the hapless and charismatic challenged JPAM. Who talked tougher than JPAM? Who gave false sense to Ugandans that he had a lot of support and foolishly that many in the army were on his side than JPAM?. What happened to him once he entered the race?

In Ugandan speak, he was exposed. Then Ugandans belatedly realized he was bure as they come. He is actually a coward, a free rider who hoped to ride to power on the hard work of others. Hehehe.

It is now new players but same story. Ugandans are something else. Full of kajanja and honestly lack seriousness.

Now can YKM change and transform Ugandan society for the better? He keeps on saying the headwork was to sort out the army. Not really. That was the easy part. The hard work is how he or anyone can or will reverse the attitude biased towards leisure in Ugandan society.

Sadly and regrettably, Uganda does not have a Mwai Kibaki in its opposition ranks. What Mwai Kibaki did to the Kenyan economy is truly transformative. He could have easily grown the economy perhaps ten times what it was when he took over from Nyayo. And what did he emphasize to Kenyans? Mulipe kodi/pay taxes.

So the question remains. In the words of Immanuel Kant , who will cure Ugandans of their immaturity?

Graduated Tax should be returned, and the Population must be controlled!


“He(Bobi Wine) was only telling me, mobile money tax will be raised. we will use that to pay the elderly in the districts, doesn’t it make sense?”—-Hon.Odongo Otto

Interesting. Why tax mobile money? Why target mobile money? Because it is easy. I guess his camp is lightening to UAH’s Mr Edward Mulindwa’s advise to target money transfers to Ugandans as if those sending money to Uganda pay nothing. Why double taxation? But who are the majority recipients of mobile money in Uganda? Are they not the bawejjere/ordinary/majority Ugandans?

MP Odonga Otto and others, should continue to talk with all potential candidates. They should be prepared for wicked ideas in Uganda as the time ticks towards elections. The message Ugandans needs to be told is this: if you want to have a voice and aspire towards civilization, volunteer to pay taxes. Good things cost money. Yet somehow some politicians are lying to Ugandans that they can have good schools, good leadership, god health care, descent living aka better quality of life by simply free riding. hell No.

Because of the election and perceived threats YKM has even given Ugandans more freedoms to free ride. Ugandans is going through the equivalent of positive feedback. The more YKM is accused of overtaxing Ugandans by perceived rivals, the more he will try to demonstrate the contrary. Yet what he needs is the equivalent of negative feedback.

High population

So who will talk about the population question which in my view is the biggest elephant in Ugandan society. People are poor because they are having too many children. Because of the population, land resources are dwindling as families subdivide the small family plots to unproductive levels. As plots get smaller, more and more Ugandans are becoming food insecure. That sounds like common sense but hey, common sense is rear not just in Uganda these days.

In plain English, Ugandans are the authors of their misery. Really some will wonder? Why? The people and their so called leaders-really politicians are delusional. Delusional that the best way to raise revenue for example is to tax mobile money?

No. The best way to get Uganda moving again is to restore work effort among most able bodied Ugandans. what must Uganda do to get Ugandans wanting (emphasis added) to work again? I mean do any work to earn a living. I do not know the regional data but it will not surprise me if in EA or Sub Saharan Africa, Ugandans rank very low in terms of work efforts. For instance why are most juicy jobs now dominated by Kenyans even in Uganda? Surely it is not lack of qualifications but rather effort/attitude towards work.

And why has work effort/attitude declined among Ugandans? If you have been reading my comments you know my thesis by now . Now, have you heard or seen anyone, from incumbent YKM to pretenders, revisit the linkages?


Okay, now let us talk about culture. And I go straight to the Chinese. Why is China today a major economic power? Part of it is through FORCED savings through the one child policy. In other words by limiting most Chinese to one child, the govt was bale to trigger excessive savings. Money is either spent or saved. With fewer children to spend money on, even poor families in china were forced to save.

There is only so much clothes they could buy for their one child. Now let us be clear: the one child policy was mostly an urban phenomenon because exemptions were made for farming families in villages. But all in all, China’s take off is rooted in its one child policy. And obviously Confucian culture of modesty.So culture can actually be the boost NOT the hindrance to envelopment/take off.

Now should Ugandans have a population policy? Absolutely? what should such a policy look like? How about YKM goes back to what he had in mind with UPE when he initially limited free UPE to 4 children per mother not father because of the polygamous nature of Ugandans society.

Must YKM legislate in favor of 4 children per mother? No. He should simply enforce the following:. First make UPE mandatory for all Ugandans irrespective of religion. Yes religion cannot and should not be an issue or excuse after all, all religions are alien to Ugandan culture-see Mazrui’s triple heritage arguments.

Second YKM must say and enact it in law that UPE shall be free for the first 4 children of EVERY mother in Uganda. You have 4 children they attend UPE free. You have 5 children or more children you must pay for the other candidates who MUST all be in school or else the mother is fined.

Third, the four children per mother shall enjoy free USE which to shall be mandatory up to the age of 18. In plain English, all Ugandans children until the age of 18 shall be in School period. I know what the religious people-screw them-will try to say but let us see those shameless religious leaders who do not want to see 18 years old Ugandan children in USE schools.

In other words YKM can usher in a demographic transition and its attendant benefits without EVER resorting to excessive measures. Notice that Ugandans women who want to produce more than 4 children can still do so as long as they pay for the extra children from their pockets. So majority of Ugandans shall have the benefit of having their 4 children per mother enjoy free UPE and USE and I would ad in health care benefits as well.

QN: can anyone justify why free education and health care to 4 children per mother is not enough contribution/subsidy from govt? in other words why should Ugandan women continue to produce more than 4 children? Let us hear from UAH.


Let us talk about transformation. What does it entail etc. From my angle YJM or anyone for that matter must usher in a demographic transition. Btw, dictators Kagame is doing so sort of by force but we are not hear to debate the merits of means vs ends. To be sure fair means matter but sometimes the end justifies the means as in Rwanda.

Why is it that in many African states we have never had a developmental state like those that emerged in what became known as Newly industrializing nations in Asia. How come African leaders ignored the wisdom of the Afro intellectual from Antigua, Nobel Laureate Arthur Lewis who offered that for labour intensive countries like Uganda, their best shop at progress lay in modernizing agriculture and not so much bias towards industrializations. Those insights won him a Nobel in economics. And he did some work in African countries.

Arthur Lewis’ idea is so cogent that you wonder what the hell African leaders and policy makers were thinking. Today I say it again, Uganda’s best hope for take off lies in better returns from agriculture. That will surely sound like what to many but it is okay. The unemployment rate as many lament about could have been mitigated with better policies in agriculture.

So let us give taxation a break and talk about agriculture. YKM said Bob Wine or something of the sort. What did he mean? What did he do policy wise? What incentives did he put in place etc? Btw, and this is telling, even without a coherent agricultural policy, Ugandan farmers grow more than enough maize to export to Kenya. Actually, Kenyans farmers are now afraid of cheap maize imports from Uganda. Think about that. The sector r is neglected yet it still performs. What if YKM cared and paid attention to agriculture.

In his new year message he apparently promised to do better looking for markets for Ugandan produce. Hmm. What about supporting these people who told to produce.

Strangely the urban riff-the bure kabisa community-have the audacity to whine and demand cheap food. Hello!. Think about it, the urban riff raff influence food prices in Uganda whereby YKM fearing or responding to rising populism from the likes of Bob Wine and his supporters robs farmers to buy peace with the urban crowd who occasionally riot about high food prices. Really!. Thinks about the priorities, the govt denies farmers work hard afair return to buy favour with the urban tangatanga folks. What the hell is going on?

I labour to show that the transformation some of you talk about -it came with simple things like fencing in England-is not on the radar in Ugandan society.

Is its fair to say Ugandan society is disorganized? hello Mr. Bwanika. If so who will try to mitigate the disorganisation. Abbey Semuwemba lamented about okuwemula /sex talk and obwenzi in Ugandan society, and pleaded with the Katikiiro to say something. Sorry Abbey, as they say,” kakyama mameera”– spoilt from the beginning.

Btw, how did Ugandan society get to that level? Because YKM gave them too much leisure. Folks, accuse YKM of something else but to talk about freedom and stuff, no. He gave Ugandans the ultimate space for maximum leisure. Yet somehow some pretenders lie to fellow Ugandans that the solution to their glory/respect/dignity/take of lies in even more and not less leisure.

Ugandans should drop the fraud ‘Bobi’ and become productive!

Ugandan pop star Robert Kyagulanyi Ssentamu, better known as Bobi Wine, celebrates shortly after being sworn in as a member of parliament in Kampala, Uganda in July 2017


Dear Abbey Semuwemba:

I know you as a sober and sharp Ugandan.There is too much naivete in Ugandan society.Too much noise and politicking about Bobi Wine and others . Thank God the Court of Appeal tried to inject order in Ugandan systems. The trick has been full time politics at the expense of farming and serious national building projects. Why should Ugandans be food insecure given the fertile land and great weather? Why should roads be impassable given the high redundancy rate in the country? A redundancy captured in the insane birth rates because sex has became the default entertainment. Come on.

Recall when Ugandans paid poll taxes, they looked for work. They searched for work so they could pay off that pol tax and display the receipt as they enjoyed their malwa. Not anymore. Today you go to Tororo and ask for help for labour , and no one will respond because they are contented okay, prefer LESURE OVER work. Put out a call for labour and see how many will respond. Why is that that case. They have no debts to pay and no chiefs to worry about.

What you have in Uganda today is a paradox: Ugandans pay no direct taxes but are poorer . I bet you that is not what YKM anticipated. He though that buy exempting Ugandans from poll tax , he was doing away with a colonial era policy that was occasionally controversial.

Granted, there were deadly tax riots in Uganda during the colonial era. But therein lines the irony. During the colonial era Ugandans could protest-credibly if I may add for paying taxation without proper representation. Today what can Ugandans protest about?

Or put it this way, why with all the alleged problems in Uganda under YKM, most Ugandans are contended to waste themselves in unproductive leisure? Why are there no riots similar to those witnessed during those tax riots in the late 50s and early 60s?

Guess what, YKM wanted to avoid such riots so he bought peace by abolishing poll tax. So tell me why would Ugandans protest today? They have no strong reasons to protest because majority are FREE RIDERS. Incredibly those challenging YKM claim Ugandans are OVERTAXED. NONSENSE.

Majority of Ugandans are actually a burden. Look at the population demographics and its huge dependency ration. ? A pain for sure. But that is the price Ugandans must pay for preferring ‘free’ things.

Btw, you and others keen on optimal taxation should read the works of two Nobel laureates. Tax policy is so important it delivered not one but two separate Nobel’s in economics. The first was the Scottish intellectual Professor Sir James Mirrless (RIP) then of Cambridge University in 1996 for his insights on optimal taxation.

The next came several years later to Prof Diamond of MIT in the same area of taxation. But to be fair, Professor Stiglitz too could have won it with his British co-author Anthony B. Atkinson. Get their book and all of you trying to advise budding politician in Uganda on tax policy. The title is : Lectures on Public Economics. It is now a classic

FYI, most of the top notch work on taxation was done at Cambridge, UK which for many years was arguably the leading University in the world for Economics. There used to be what was called the Cambridge debates in Economics between Cambridge, UK and Cambridge , Massachusetts. They were truly great debates. Not anymore because Cambridge UK is not what it used to be at least in Economics while Cambridge MA in the form of Harvard and MIT have become even more dominant-people take pay cuts to teach there..

Enter Margaret Thatcher and the migration of UK intellectuals to the USA once she ended tenure. Thatcher single-handedly gifted American Universities many Nobel winners not just in Economics but other areas.

Interestingly Thatcher quipped that her biggest success is the rise of Mr. Tony Blair in UK politics. I know you and other Labour extreme sin UAH probably do not like Blair but he is arguably one of UK’s finest PM in a generation. See what you have and especially who he beat leading labour.

QN: Could labour go begging for one of Tony Blair’s trusted foreign secrete to rescue it from its deep rot. To say Labour is in big shit is an understatement

I still do not understand how a major political party could nominate a Jeremy Corbyn. Okay., I get it. The unions put him on top. But see how those same voters voted this past elections.

I digress to demonstrate to you that it is not easy to win elections especially with a fraud candidate. Sure they can fool some but majority of voters are not fooled.I remain candid and brutally honest and that robs some the wrong way. Do I believe that the current pretender,Bobi Wine, can or will defeat YKM in an election? Hell No.

Wining election starts with the candidate. And It is hard even under the best of circumstance more in developing countries. it is not easy. Is that being naïve? No.

Iran isn’t the first country to bring down a civilian air-plane!

supreme leader of Iran

By Edward Pojim via UAH forum

The flight path would get the jetliner out of Iranian airspace and into international waters within 15 minutes.

It was shot down less than 10 minutes after take-off. I think Ukraine went ahead with the scheduled flight because they were evacuating foreigners due to the prevailing situation.

Once it was established that the aircraft was brought down my a surface-to-air missile, it had to be from Iran, because there was no other military force on land in that area.

By the way, accidental or intentional downing of civilian airplanes happens with more frequency than we might want to believe.

Russian, and its former self, USSR, have shot down more jetliners than any other nation. In Africa, Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe (when it was Rhodesia) all suffered huge losses after their jetliners were brought down, all allegedly by Apartheid South Africa.

US Navy Carrier, USS Vincenness, shot down an Iranian A300 in 1988, killing all 290 people aboard. To their credit, US owned up to the mistake immediately, and stripped the Carrier’s Skipper of command role, and later fired him.

A Malaysia Airliner was shot down over Ukraine in 2014 by Russian rockets, fired by Ukrainian rebels..

“Swabullah Nabukeera” aka Richard Tumushabe went too far!

A Ugandan imam was suspended from his work as a cleric this week because he was unknowingly married to a man for two weeks.

By Peter Gwokto in Canada, via UAH forum

Disguising oneself as a member of the other gender is as old as prostitution. The Old Testament is full of them. Oftentimes such disguises are for monetary gains and/or escapes from prisons and political disasters.

Obote and Museveni did once or many times disguised themselves as women to evade security. Luckily for them no horny soldiers towed them to the bushes for, y’know what.

Master of disguise are Chinese. In a recent documovie I watched several Chinese women disguised themselves as men in order to work on the transcontinental USA railroads in the 1800s. Some in the company of their fathers heading to the Wild West and Rockies to blast thru the railroad.

As recently as a couple years ago a Tanzanian woman worked all her life as a dude inside the deep earth as a miner. Same happened to an Egyptian woman who worked all her life in constructions disguised as a man seeing her lone daughter graduate from university out of the disguise.

All the above were fore= genuine reasons. The Imam’s ordeal is one disguise gone too far. Of importance would be for investigators to ask the sheman when he/she intended to tell the Man Of Allah her true gender or if she wanted Man Of Allah to discover the hard way – balls colliding in midair during bungabunga attempt.

He is even lucky bcos if the Imam were to discover her disguise the hard way the Imam could have strangled or knifed him/her to death – or perhaps the reverse could have occurred that the Imam would’ve instantly gone mentally kaput from the shock and awe.

Kenyan Courts and online forums are a Joke!

Kenyan Supreme Court judges arrive for a hearing of a petition challenging the election result filed by the National Super Alliance (NASA) coalition and Human Rights groups at the Supreme Court in Nairobi, Kenya August 28, 2017. REUTERS/Baz Ratner – RC17EBD239E0


Those Kenyan online groups are not much different from say Ugandans At Heart(UAH). They tend to attract anti-govt hardliners who in my view are “bure kabisa’ on the ground. Granted that will rub many in UAH the wrong way, but it is what it is. Overrated with minimal influence on the masses. These online forums are merely therapeutic. They allow us to talk and say anything and feel good.
Politics is like the NFL. If Kansas City Chiefs have any hope of beating The Tennessee Titans in the AFC championship game they must put themselves in harm’s way and tackle the Titans running back Henry otherwise they could face humiliation. Sports like politics is contact sport. That is why there unfortunately casualties.

And let me say something about Kenyan courts. They issue funny orders. Where in the developed world have you seen criminals or suspects got to court simply because they have money and can afford expensive lawyers to seek anticipatory bail, which is then easily granted by questionable judiciary officers?

btw, have you seen a video where the Kenyan courts issued a court order in a child custody case to a mother who abandoned her child for 9 years-the child is now 10, remarried. But apparently in Kenya mothers automatically win full physical custody in cases where the child or minor is below 18. Well the young girl resisted on camera even as court bailiffs tried to snatch her away from her father and said she was not going with the mother who was truly a stranger.

Embarrassed, the judiciary issued some statement which turned out to be full of lies. And the magistrate said he was ruling so because it was in the best interests of the child. NONSENSE.

I bring that up to highlight the kind of court orders in Kenya. The young girl violated the court order which ignored her rights and interests even as the magistrate claimed he was doing so because it was in the child’s best intrusts. Guess what happened? As the child screamed and hang on the father, crowds started gathering outside the court and the mother had to run for her dear life as the crowds threatened to piga her kabisa. And we are talking about Kitui.

The same Kenyan courts issued orders that let the Akasha brothers free, only to be arrested and flown to the USA-yes there was a restraining court order from Kenyan courts-but the state said otherwise. The Akasha brothers have apparently implicated some Kenyan judges and lawyers -who bribed judges and police officers etc. to get favorable court orders. Think about it, the Kenyan courts issued restraining orders against the state to stay away from the Akasha drug barons who have now ben sentence in New York courts. What does that say about Kenyan courts/judiciary? That some within the Kenyan judiciary issue orders because well.

Who is producing milk in Uganda to disrupt the Kenyan Market?

Employees deliver milk at a Brookside Dairy Uganda selling point. Charles Tebaijukira earns Shs1,000 per litre. Photos by Lominda Afedraru



Reflect critically about the paradox that is Uganda. Why? Kenyan authorities including President Uhuru Kenyatta, have asked the treasury to impose a 16% VAT on perceived-read competitive-milk imports from Uganda that have apparently hurt the Kenyan farmers. Let us hear from UAH members on the ground. What is going on? Ugandan milk exports disrupting the Kenyan milk market. Where is this milk produced in Uganda? Who is producing it? Is it by individual farmers, I mean those with less than 5 cows? How is the milk collected? Those days Ugandan milk used to be diluted with water. Has that changed? Are their penalties against such cheating activities?

In short, why is it the case that in spite of govt indifference -you can comment on that too-Ugandan farmers not just in the milk sector but maize sector as well are thriving so much so that maize and milk exports to Kenya have substantially DISRUPTED the Kenyan market forcing the state to intervene?

Please let us stay on the issue and assume it is true because it is true that milk and maize imports from Uganda have flooded the Kenyan market and forced Kenyan farmers to politicize the issue to the extent where their president had to act.

Ironically, the tanga tanga group aligned to WSR have been saying UK does not care about the plight of Kenyan farmers many of whom are in GEMA land and of course Rift valley. But guess who is being accused of importing milk and maize from Uganda-I suspect mostly from Sebei? People close to WSR if not WSR himself . So they are importing maize and benefiting financially but also trying to cash in politically. Kyonka politics.

The other irony is that the Kenyatta family are major players in the milk sectors in Kenya and Uganda too having bought the former Ugandan dairy factory. The govt ordered New KCC to pay Kenyan farmers a guaranteed price of Kshs. 33 up from Kash 25. But what about the Kenyatta family owned Brookside? Will it follow suit and match KCC?

William Koros, a farmer in Endebess, Trans Nzoia County, in his maize farm. Maximising the use of maize derivatives into the many products would increase its demand and this will act as an incentive for farmers, including the youth to increase its production and productivity. PHOTO | GERALD BWISA | NMG

That said the issue is serious and has implications for the survival of the Kenyan farmers. I suspect Uganda which is able to out compete the Kenyan farmer on low production cost will also impose some form of tax on Kenyan imports. Basically, what Kenyan authorities are doing to appease farmers in the short run has long term implications for the region.

They are trying to appease the inefficient Kenyan farmer. What happened to the notion of comparable advantage? Why cannot Kenyans accept that may be Ugandan farmers despite the clueless of their leaders enjoy a significant comparative advantage in agriculture. Folks, if you hear Kenyan TV pundits Ugandan milk, maize, eggs and even rice have DISRUPTED the Kenyan sectors.

Ordinarily that is not bad thing but there is politics. What about the Kenyan consumer who will certainly have to pay more to afford ugaali and maziwa. Ordinarily and Kenyans must come to terms with the reality. They must diversify their menu away from maindi and ugaali . Why is it the case that even Kenyans living in villages depend on bought floor for ugaali? Or else they must accept to be fed by Ugandan produce if it saves them money.

Anyway, my interest is elsewhere. How is the Ugandan farmer able to do it? Why are they able to do it? What is the role of middle men and women in this? Who is exporting milk, maize, rice and egs to Kenya ? Are they ordinary farmers or some organized entities? To his credit YKM liberalized everything. Whether that is a good thing is another debate but for now Ugandan farmers can at least escape middle men.

I liken Kenyan farmers to steel makers in America. The moment Japanese steel entered the USA, American and Canadian steal makers could not compete. What happened are ghost towns. Go to Youngstown Ohio and many other former cities. Trump is trying but too late. The USA ain’t gonna get a comparative advantage in steel again. Done kabisa.

Now the paradox, what if Ugandan authorities cared about agricultural farmers? If unsupported, disorganized Ugandan farmers are able to produce so much to disrupt the well sported-read spoiled Kenyan farmers-Kenyan market, what would happen if the Ugandan state gave farmers a helping hand of some sort? How can it be that perceived cheap imports from Ugandan have all but destroyed the maize market in Kenyan yet some claim Ugandans are hungry or food insecure? Hello.

What are we missing? And what are the bumbling opposition politicians in Uganda saying ? I mean if Ugandan farmers or produce is credibly disrupting the powerful Kenyan market in maize, milk and eggs what does that say about Ugandan farmers? Soil?


Abbey Semuwemba

By Abbey Kibirige Semuwemba

Politics is a dog fight, and only the big dog gets the bone. At the moment, a lot of Bobi’s followers are,savagely, urging Dr.Kiiza Besigye not to stand again in the 2021 elections, but they’ve forgotten that they have already went about this the wrong way, such that it doesn’t matter anymore whether Besigye stands or not,because none of his genuine supporters, not supporting Kyagulanyi, would easily switch to supporting him now -There’s too much water under the bridge. Therefore, they better concentrate on Museveni, and leave Besigye and FDC alone.

This is how Bobi’s camp literally ‘murdered’ Besigye- its more of the same method lawyers use in courts to help the defendant get away with murder:

Step1: Discredit the witnesses;
They wrote a lot of propaganda against anybody they perceive to be a supporter of Besigye. Such propaganda mainly centered on calling them moles in the opposition- that are working for Museveni. Anybody who has written, or spoken anything against Bobi, has been branded a mole, or something like that.

Step 2: Introduce a new suspect;
They started selling Bobi as an alternative to Besigye during the by-elections, and have done everything possible to distance him from Besigye. Bobi, being a sheep, he just obeys whatever his advisors tell him to do.

Step 3: Bury the evidence.
You throw so much information at the jury that they walk into the deliberation room with one overwhelming feeling– doubt. They have, cleverly, done this by creating a lot of fake news, doctored videos and audios, against Besigye and others in opposition- that create doubt among the votes, in as far as Besigye is concerned. They have also done this by creating a lot of trivial headlines for Bobi Wine, such that one may think that he’s actually done something unique for the opposition that hasn’t been done before.

That is how you get away with murder.Bobi’s people think that they’ve got away with ‘murder’, but they’ve found a lot of Ugandans with their eyes wide open. Its silly to discourage Besigye from standing again, if his intention is to use elections to continue doing his undergound mobilisation against Museveni.Because, let’s face it, nobody is gonna win against Museveni in the elections he is refereeing himself. There’s a guy called James Baldwi, he was a writer and black, I read a quote of his and it stayed with me. ” Freedom is not something anybody can be given. Freedom is something people take,and people are as free as they want to be.” Personally, I strongly believe that Besigye wont be part of the 2021 sham elections.

As a way forward, first, Bobi’s camp should apologise for spreading the mole propaganda against Besigye, then we see if people forgive them. Secondly, they should accept to work with Besigye. Yes, the two can work together- Besigye is like Lye, while Bobi is like Fat, in soap.Lye can be used to break down a corpse, but it’s also used in soap. So, how come its safe in soap? When the fat and lye are combined, there’s a chemical reaction that turns lye into salt- it’s called saponification. Bobi and Besigye, combined together, can ‘saponificate’ Museveni. Short of that, we may as well declare Museveni,in advance, the next president of Uganda.

Idi Amin’s first cabinet was more useful to Uganda than all Museveni’s!

Idi Amin’s first cabinet

By Edward Mulindwa via UAH forum
Every era in human history has its’ role to play. Idi Amin might have been a buffoon as most people refer to him,but those he appointed as his advisers tried their best to serve the country called Uganda.
That was an effective cabinet better than what you have today sir.Under that government we had water in our pipes guaranteed, we had Uganda Transportation Corporation all over the country, Republic Bus services was running all over the country, we never knew the term load shedding existed, Uganda airline was flying high, Land line phones expanded, Uganda railway was running and effectively, we got coach busses in Uganda, KCC had trucks that lift garbage bins, Police Officers got 750HP motorcycles, embassies were expanded. Uganda cooperative Bank and Uganda Commercial bank were running and effectively. But most importantly in that government Langi and Acholi were never camped for they were regarded as equal among Uganda population.

Colette Amin, daughter of Ugandan President Idi Amin, on a visit to London, October 13th 1983

Colette Amin, daughter of Ugandan President Idi Amin, on a visit to London, October 13th 1983

What happened to the plan to produce pads in Uganda?

Girls in a primary school in Uganda make pads using a pedal-driven sewing machine

By Dr.Edward Kayondo via Ugandans at Heart (UAH) Community
Forum members, sensitivity is needed on the issue of sanitary pads, and I wish we can get a ladies input. Gone are the days when men have to decide what is right or wrong for women.One thing to note, there psychological and physical changes that women experience before, during or after their periods. Its a known fact especially for young ladies to be in pain or embarrassed during this period especially when the folded clothes that many use to control this bleeding leaks into their dresses. They become the jokes at schools and many would rather stay away from school until they are done with this period.
Provision of sanitary pad coupled with sexual education and periodic check ups would be the best way to go and this the government I believe should be able to provide.
What happens however with every good program that is proposed, individuals find away to flip it and make money out of it. The idea is good, but the system as it is cannot support it. I wish it could be done.

As a note this idea came to life because there was a plan to produce these pads within Uganda, I guess thats the reason why it excited the President, but either way it would be great if done.

Eddie, MD

Sanitary pads arent more important than food in schools!

Posho and beans is the main food in Uganda schools

By Godfrey Nsubuga’ via Ugandans at Heart (UAH) Community

Why are politicians so engrossed in matters of sanitory pads while ignoring the fact that these kids run on empty stomachs from morning to evening at school with teachers equally hopeless seeking solace in kaveras of kitoko because of poor and sometimes no pay? Why are our good no-nosense ladies like Miria Matembe not taking this one up?I can tell with 70% certainity that these good ladies like Matembe, Olive Nantubwe, E. Madra and lousy Specipza Kazibwe, could have used their first sanitory pad when above 18. so how did they manage their lady days then? and they did go to school.

There is an affordable solution in these grown up and educated ladies that can prove enormously helpful to Ugandans, why arent they talking today? The talk of pads has been taken on theoretical grounds by those whose job is to write papers and proposals for a living; these want to scoop billions and buy pads for millions. If there is less/ no money, we must feed children healthy and then address ”messes” in a fancy way if need be and not ”messes” before food.

How many women digging the farm land in Bukunja are Using pads? very few yet their ”messes” come normally. These TV stunts of girls Using leaves and fibres is hogwash designed to alarm TV audience. What am saying is, the PAD is not the only thing that works during those days and should not be amplified beyond the key factors killing education; teacher motivation and training, teaching aides, feeding at school. The most affected girls come from rural areas and the mothers there are well versed with alternatives that work in different fabrics. All primary girls come from homes with mothers still going through ”messes”, how do mothers do it and can not tell their kids

Remarks on Fees Setting Principles in Public and Private Universities in Uganda

Mukwanason A. Hyuha


Prof. Mukwanason A. Hyuha
Centre for Critical Thinking and Alternative Analysis


A university has four main functions: creation of new knowledge by extending frontiers of knowledge (through scientific research), dissemination of existing knowledge (via teaching/lecturing), preservation and storage of existing knowledge (through books, libraries, archives, etc.), and community outreach to assist the community at least in its vicinity. However, the major function that differentiates a university from primary and secondary schools, teacher training colleges or other non-tertiary education institutions is the scientific research whose main outputs include books, articles in recognised journals and patented innovations and products. A university without research is merely a ‘glorified secondary school’, and a university with minimal research is definitely weak, dangerously hovering on the brink of a bottomless abyss of oblivion.

Apart from student/staff ratios and related quantitative measures, a university’s ranking is determined by its research output. The more the research output, the higher will, ceteris paribus, be the ranking, and vice versa. For instance, given its research, Harvard University is highly ranked. Whereas in renown scientific journals, one will find numerous articles authored by Harvard University academic staff, one will find just a few articles contributed by Ugandan university academicians. The same applies to other scientific research products.

Research output speaks for itself; a university’s research output should be readily available in the universe, since a university is universal. Ugandan universities’ academic staff may indeed be engaged in numerous consultancies, but are these consultancies resulting in scientific output? Most consultancies are financially very lucrative but do not result in publications in recognised academic journals and other outlets. In the extreme, consultancies are only good from the pecuniary viewpoint; a consultant is contracted to write a report after “research” to show, say, that ‘A is equal to B’, this being a conviction of the “research” funder. After “research”, if the consultant concludes that ‘A is not equal to B’, he/she is likely to have serious problems with the purse-holder. The consultant even risks not being paid because of this ‘wrong’ conclusion! Hence, research output should not be measured by volumes of consultancies; definitely, ranking should not be based on consultancy output as a major factor.

For some time now, the issue of financing tertiary education through tuition and functional fees in public universities has evoked considerable debate in Uganda. This is one of the aftermaths of the introduction of private sponsorship schemes in Makerere University in the 1990s. In the good old days, university education was fully financed by the government However, as the number of eligible students increased, government found itself unable to cover all costs; it resorted to highering entrance requirements from one to two principal passes at the ‘A’ level. Eventually, Government had to yield to pressure from parents who continuously expressed interest to pay fees for their children not absorbed by government sponsorship. In 1993, private sponsorship schemes were, therefore, initiated by Makerere University. This was followed by similar schemes in other public universities, plus the founding, thereafter, of private universities.

Student Unrest over High University Fees

Subsequently, as attempts were made to increase fees, student strikes and related unrest emerged. Following unrest over allegedly excessive fees, debates on the issue of the appropriate level of fees in public universities emerged. Should the level of fees in Makerere be lower than or similar to that in a private university? If lower, how lower? What principles should guide fees setting in public universities, vis-a-vis purely private universities? The moral question is: Why should two students who both qualify to join a university (each with two ‘A’ level principal passes) pay different fees—a government-sponsored student paying zero fees, while a non-government-sponsored one in the same public university is paying high fees? This moral issue is even more serious when one realises that the zero-fees paying student is from a rich family that can easily afford the high fees, while the one facing the burden of ‘exorbitant’ fees is from a poor family (the wretched of the Earth, so to speak!).

This paper deals with this issue of fees in public universities. In particular, it highlights the fact that fees in public universities should be significantly different from those in private universities. Hence, comparing of fees in Makerere University with those in, say, Uganda Christian University (UCU) is technically wrong; it is like comparing apples with oranges.

Financing Higher Education in Uganda

Education is both an investment and a consumption good. The government and individuals buy education because they expect a future flow of goods and services. Education leads to creation of both individual and institutional capacities. First, it enables individuals to acquire knowledge, ingenuity and skills to perform various functions better than before and to become innovators and entrepreneurs (individual capacity building). Second, education leads to the production of high-calibre human resources for, inter alia, universities, secondary schools, and other tertiary education institutions—in addition to boosting research, knowledge dissemination and storage and community outreach. This is its role in institutional capacity building.

As a consumption good, individuals have to pay for the education they consume, just like they pay for other consumption commodities. Hence, individuals should contribute to payment for education in its individual capacity building function. However, for national institutional capacity building, the government must pay for education and the accompanying infrastructure. It is because of this reality that maskini (developing) countries the world over decided to fully pay for tertiary education right from the time they attained political independence. Non-tertiary education was regarded as a consumption good—hence, mutually paid for by government and individuals.

To date, this philosophy-cum-ideology on education in all maskini countries is still relevant and prudent. Given this viewpoint, university education should be financed by government and parents/guardians on a cost-sharing basis; in public universities, the government should, ideally, meet all costs. With good foresight and planning, this is still feasible.

Principles of Fees Setting in Public and Private Universities

There are three types of universities in Uganda: public universities (such as Makerere, MUST, Gulu, Lira, Busitema, etc.), faith-based universities (such as IUIU, UMU, UCU, Bugema, etc.), and purely private universities—founded by individuals and organisations (including KU, KIU, IUEA, St. Lawrence, etc.).

Ideally, the public universities should be fully funded by government through the taxpayer, and the faith-based universities should be fully funded by the concerned faiths through their ‘sheep’. The purely private universities should be funded by their owners (trustees) through user fees and other means at the disposal of the trustees. So, the three types of universities should be guided by different principles in fees setting. Whereas the public and faith-based universities should aim at breaking-even or, at best, generating small surpluses (not maximum profits), private universities should generate maximum profits for their shareholders.

Price determination in any firm is highly dependent on the basic objectives or philosophy of the firm. That is why there are vast differences amongst prices set by monopolies, oligopolies, firms in competitive markets, firms in socialist countries, and so on. Comparisons may, therefore, not be useful unless one takes into account the underlying philosophy or ideology of a firm.

I expect governments in maskini countries to offer education as an investment, since there is a high, statistically significant correlation between education or skilled labour and development. A government firm should, therefore, aim at just offering an essential service as the basic ideology. Of course, it should not be a loss-making firm; it should at least break-even. It is actually commendable if the firm makes a small surplus, which can be ploughed back to expand the firm. Definitely, the firm should not aim at profit maximisation. I place a public university in this category. This is why I expect the costs of operating a public university to be borne by the sole shareholder (government). If a government is no longer able to do so, it should privatise the firms it is unable to cater for with regard to at least fixed costs.

Thus, a public firm’s ultimate philosophy is to produce and offer a good or service at the lowest possible price, so that the product is affordable by the firm’s clients. The firm may generate a surplus for ploughing back for continued growth; the firm may even afford to operate at the break-even point in order to offer an affordable product to its clients. Note that surplus generation is definitely not based on the principle of profit maximisation.

However, non-charitable private firms normally aim at making not just a surplus but at least a (normal) profit. The firms essentially offer a service or produce a good or service in the process of their maximising profits; philanthropy does not come into the picture. If the firms could generate maximum profits without producing any good or service, they would be fine for costs of production would then be almost zero. Private universities are in this category. They have no godfather (government) to meet some of their operational costs, yet they need to generate profits for shareholders, not just break-even; they are in business to maximise their shareholders’ earnings.

Let F = fixed costs, D = development and other non-recurrent expenditure, W = wages and salaries, E = expendables (pen, paper, etc.), A = extra allowances for teaching non-government-sponsored students, P = profit, S = a surplus (S < P), and u = unforeseen expenses. In a public university, fees setting should be based on a cost-plus pricing principle; fixed and related non-recurrent costs and wages and salaries must be financed by the government. The total variable costs plus a given mark-up (i.e., ‘W’ + E + A + S + u) should be divided by the number of students to arrive at the fees payable by each student—where ‘W’ is the wage bill of part-timers teaching on the programme.

For the day programmes with private sponsored students, the numerator should exclude F, D and W, since these were already met by the government; these programmes have to run whether or not private students are admitted to the programmes. For the purely private programmes (e.g. evening programmes), again not all fixed costs should be included in the numerator; fees should be set such that they cover all programme costs plus a mark-up to take care of a surplus required to contribute to the infrastructure of the university. This surplus should ideally be re-invested for the continued sustainability of the private sponsorship scheme.

This implies a subsidy for the non-government sponsored students, since their parents and guardians (through taxation) contribute to paying for the fixed and other costs at the public university. This subsidy is also justified because, after all, government was supposed to cater for all who qualified to join the university.

For a private university, the numerator is total costs (F + D + W + A + E + P + u). Therefore, prices set by private firms are perfunctorily expected to be higher than those at non-profit-maximising firms in similar enterprises, including universities. In general, it is, therefore, wrong to compare fees in Makerere University with those in private universities in Uganda. Fees in one private university can, however, be compared with those in another private university in the same country.

A faith-based university should set fees almost as the public university does, as it has a godfather (the ‘sheep’) to cater for some of the costs, and it embraces philanthropic objectives. If no godfather, then its fees setting mechanism should be similar to that of a purely private university.

Increasing of Fees over Time

Prices—including fees—should not automatically increase periodically. Justification for raising fees must be based on sound reasons, like inflationary pressures, need to improve quality of education, or need to boost efficiency across the board. It should not be based on just statements that fees in private or foreign universities are higher, or just statements that the fees have remained constant for a long time, or on similar flimsy arguments. The fees in Kenya, Tanzania, UK, USA and/or any other foreign country need not be similar to those in Uganda in view of differing income, productivity, inflation, and poverty levels. Besides, one still needs to grapple with the issue of the degree of efficiency in revenue collection and resource deployment so as to determine whether or not a given fees structure is optimal or otherwise.

As I stated in an article in the Saturday Monitor newspaper of March 22, 2008, when we started the private sponsorship schemes in Makerere, we used these principles in setting fees for different programmes. Makerere’s setting of fees for students was not based on the ‘market place’.

Concluding Remarks

This paper uses simple economic principles to lay out foundations for setting tuition fees in public and private universities in a maskini country. It is argued that the principle of cost-plus pricing should be used to set fees in public universities and, possibly, in faith-based and other universities that embrace philanthropy. The purely private universities should use the principle of profit maximisation, as they will then maximise their shareholders’ return on investment.

In view of differing pricing mechanisms, fees in public universities should be lower than those in private universities across various study programmes. Further, in view of these differing mechanisms and philosophies, it makes little sense to compare fees in public and those in private universities in the same country. And, given dissimilar income, productivity, efficiency, cost of living and poverty levels across countries, comparison of fees across countries also tends to be futile. Besides, one should always base fees increases over time on sound (economic) reasons, not on a flimsy reason like ‘fees have remained unchanged for a long time’.

Thus, to increase fees in Makerere and other public universities, one should look at these issues. This means that serious studies and sound analyses must be undertaken before final decisions are made. Short of this, fees setting will be based on arbitrary considerations—considerations that are bound to generate more student unrest on a sustainable basis in future.

Finally, it is imperative that government observes equity in student sponsorship. All who qualify to join a public university should be treated equally in terms of paying, or not paying, fees. My long-held conviction is that government sponsorship should be abolished, in favour of a loan system for all. This would go a long way in dealing with inequity and the moral issue raised earlier.

December 10, 2019.

NRM is responsible for the emergence of the Bobis and Butchermans!

Bobi Wine and Butcherman

By David Lewis Rubongoya, graduate of Harvard and Oxford, lecturer of Constitutional Law

I watched Kahinda Otafiire speak about the dangers that lie ahead if we entrust the future of our country into the hands of people without tested leadership experience, political acumen and a strong intellect.

Unlike most people who dismissed his remarks, I personally agree that in ideal terms, politics should attract the best of society- people well equipped to give strategic direction to a nation like ours in the 21st century. In Uganda’s case, the need for competent leaders is even higher, given our turbulent history, the persistent economic stagnation, and the evident simmering tensions between tribes, classes and religions. One would be right to say that we sit on a time bomb whose explosion can be stopped or delayed by a sober, patient and capable political leadership.

What Kahinda Otafiire did not mention however, is how we ended up here. In my own assessment we face a tough trajectory. We are placed between a rock and hard place. The dominant forces in the NRM have bastardised politics so much so that the opposition has not been spared of the same traits!

Kahinda Otafiire and his ilk must therefore be reminded that it is the NRM which turned politics in Uganda into a joke. Whatever is happening and that which stares us, is nothing but their making and legacy.

In the early 1990s, the NRM had the best crop of leaders in whose hands our nation had been placed. As we grew up, the names frequently mentioned on radio stations were the likes of James Wapakhabulo, Francis Ayume, Noble Mayombo, Eriya Kategaya, Miria Matembe, Cosmas Adyebo, Specioza Wandira Kazibwe, Wilson Kanyeihamba etc etc. At that time, people ascended to political office on account of their values, virtues and intellect. It is that crop of leaders who debated and enacted the original 1995 Constitution. At the time, Parliament could engage in real debate on issues- to a point that powerful ministers were censured. An examination of the Parliamentary Hansard and court decisions emerging from that period paints a picture of a country which had been placed on a steady path despite some problems.

Then corruption set in. Many of those intellectuals who held positions of leadership started using them for personal enrichment. Kahinda Otafiire himself, a man who was by all means a respected intellectual, was named in scandal after scandal- from plundering the Congo, to irregularly giving away public property, and being accused of massive land grabbing. He rubbished whoever questioned him, at one time wondering what a swamp was doing in town; – pretending that he has not seen how developed countries maintain swamps, streams and rivers in their urban places for conservation ecology, tourism and beautification.

Anyway, it was at the hands of intellectuals like Kahinda Otafiire that scandal after scandal rocked the nation. Trillions were lost in corruption! President Museveni took it a notch higher and started paying MPs to pass controversial laws that would benefit him- starting with the amendment to remove term limits. He did not stop there- he announced that an unintelligent NRM MP was far better than an intelligent opposition MP. The NRM MP was free to sleep throughout- as long as he or she woke up every once in a while and voted for the Movement! By the time Evelyn Anite went on bended knee years later, and passed the sentence against Amama Mbabazi, intellectual debate had long flown through the window.

As corruption grew and leadership positions became ‘eating positions’, the struggle to acquire political positions became a matter of life and death. People had to do all manner of ridiculous things to enter into politics- bribery, violence, theatrics and even witchcraft! Politics became highly monetised both in terms of acquiring positions, as well as getting dividends out of those positions. The population, which had been effectively impoverished, and watching how their representatives went in there to eat, lost any appetite for ideas. You either gave him a bar of soap and a sachet of waragi or forgot his vote!

As expected, the intellectuals who cared for their reputations could not engage in these despicable actions. They were gradually sidelined in public discourse. Respected lawyers, doctors and other public servants found that they had no home in this toxic political environment. They returned their energies to their private enterprises, while many others resorted to seeking greener pastures abroad.

The intellectuals who desired to remain in politics had to behave stupidly in order to survive. To understand this point, one does not need to look further than examining the unfortunate conduct of Uganda’s successive Attorneys General (and by extension, the Directors of Public Prosecutions).

Politics was therefore by and large left to shameless people who were driven by personal gain and not conviction or patriotism. Master opportunists, manipulators and other undesirable characters flooded the August House as they did other positions of leadership. The ruling party encouraged this state of affairs by pulling down anyone whose ideas were contrary to those of the status quo- beginning with the sacking of ministers who opposed the lifting of the presidential term limits. It became normal for a minister to come out and admit that they signed contracts worth billions of shillings without reading them! It became clear that most leaders were incapable of understanding, let alone managing complex public affairs. Politics became a complete joke! Traditional opposition parties were not spared of the problems highlighted above- corruption, opportunism, intimidation, etc. Factionalism became factionalism. National interest was sacrificed at the altar of personal gain. The actors became too comfortable in this place.

It was at the apex of this situation that the People Power movement emerged and took them by surprise. It is therefore not surprising that Kahinda Otafiire does not realise that the people who support this movement are not just following a musician- they are pushing back against the system created by the NRM. This wrong analysis does not begin or end with Otafiire- President Museveni thinks that the best way to respond is by appointing the likes of Butcherman, Full Figure and Catherine Kusasira as presidential advisers and envoys. This can only worsen the situation. My advice would be that they ask themselves how we came to this point.

As Kahinda Otafiire highlights the lack of intellect and political acumen as a danger to Uganda, he should be reminded of what the Holy scriptures say – “You hypocrite. First remove the log out of your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck out of your brother’s eye.”

Museveni blocked me for an international job as he did with Otunu

FDC hails gov’t for supporting Byanyima’s UNAids appointment

By George Okello In London via the UAH forum
You see here the FDC’s achilles’s heel gets exposed once again with the appointment of Winnie Byanyima as Executive Director of UNAIDS. You must be supported by your own government in order to be appointed to such a position. Conversely, your government can block your appointment if it does not want you as it constantly blocked Olara Otunu’s apointment to Deputy Secretary General to the extent of forcing him to take the citizenship of the Ivory Coast.

Obviously Kayibanda has no problem with his former girlfriend being appointed to this position, but what about the FDC?It is the same problem the FDC had with the appointment of Anne Mugisha to the UN regional office in Somalia. To get the support of the Ugandan government, she had to kneel down before Kayibanda and promise to withdraw completely from politics, a promise she has kept up to today.

So what promise has the FDC got from kayibanda for supporting the appointment of Byanyima to this top position? Winnie was on her way out of Oxfam anyway following the horrible sex abuse carried out under her watch by Oxfam staff on very vulnerable girls in poor countries, so this post has come at the right time for her.

With apointments like this, many people do not see any difference between NRA and FDC. The difference is very cosmetic as the two feed on each other and need each other to survive.

Uganda needs a completely new start.How is backing Byanyima decent when Kayibanda has blocked every single person from the north who has been appointed to an international job requiring home country endorsement?

Olara Otunnu comes to mind. Kayibanda blocked Otunnu time and again from when he wanted to stand as UN Secretary general and when he was appointed Deputy Secretary general. Poor Otunnu was forced to look for a friendly African country to sponsor him, and that’s how he ended up with the Ivory Coast citizenship.

And what about me? I was appointed to a legal post in the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, then based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. I had then returned from the Philippines, and at a meeting of Amnesty International, I met the then Director of the Commission who came to talk to us about the Commission, which was still new. Later on at dinner, he said he was very impressed by my overall grasp of African human rights issues, and my energy and enthusiasm, so he asked me to go and work for him in Addis Ababa, a request I accepted.
I was then asked to make a formal application for the role and was invited for an interview in Addis Ababa. This was a lengthy selection process that involved a written exam, presentations, face to face interview and then a final interview with the Directors. They selected two of us, out of 9 candidates who had competed for the roles.

But to my surprise, I was then told the job required home country approval. I knew at that point, all my effort was wasted. I went to the Ugandan Addis embassy and spoke to some officials there, who assured me they would deal with the matter there at the embassy level, and not pass it on to the Foreign Affairs ministry. I then left and returned to London, and expected the whole process to be completed in about 2 weeks.

After 3 weeks, I got a telephone call from the Addis embassy, telling me that my request for country endorsement had to be passed to the Foreign Affairs Ministry as the embassy had no authority to deal with it, and that somebody would be in contact with me.
In the meantime, the commission was pressing me, wanting to know when I would sort out the endorsement process so that I could start.
After 6 weeks, I finally got a message, from the Uganda embassy in London, telling me I would not be endorsed by the government of Uganda because of the work I had done for international human rights organisations, which was very critical of the Ugandan government, and of Kayibanda Museveni in particular.

Eventually I withdrew my application, even though the Director still wanted me to join them, but at a lower level as an Assistant Legal Officer, which did not require any country endorsement. But I turned it down.

The issue is not about qualifications. Every candidate considered for such a job is highly qualified. Olara Otunnu was for eg highly qualified and met all the required job specifications to be appointed Secretary General or Deputy Secretary General of the UN.

The issue is that for some international jobs such as at the UN, AU, International Court of Justice, World Bank etc, you cannot be appointed to some positions, unless you are endorsed by your own government. Qualifications and experience are required, but home country endorsement is essential and is a road block that disqualifies many competent candidates.

In my case, it wasn’t even a question of being qualified, because I had already done and passed a written test, a video presentation and two oral interviews in a selection process lasting one week.

Looking back, I was not really surprised that I was blocked by kayibanda Rubatisirwa. The African Commission for Human Rights was new and one of its key tasks was to investigate human rights abuses committed by African governments. It was created by the OAU as it was known at the time, but was not universally welcomed by many African governments, including Uganda.

The Commission had problems from the the very beginning with many governments refusing to cooperate with its investigations. Kayibanda Rubatisirwa knew I was going to push for an investigation of Uganda, and especially as the Genocide in Acholi was raging at the time. The last thing kayibanda Rubatisirwa wanted was an investigation by a Commission of the OAU, and so he blocked my appointment.

Actually, the Commission became ineffective as the years went by, it was starved of funds, and moved its HQ from Addis Ababa to Banjul, Gambia to save costs. The Director who appointed me left in frustration after a while.

Later on much of the work of the Commission was taken over by the International Criminal Court, or ICC, which had a higher profile, stronger mandate, and stronger investigatory powers. This time to protect the integrity of the court, governments have no role in the appointment of judges of the court.

But even with these added power and authority, you can see the ICC still faces a huge problem, most of which stemming from reluctance of African governments to cooperate with its work and opposition and hostility from the USA. .

So in the case of Byanyima, she would not have got the UN AIDS job without the nod of kayibanda Rubatisirwa. Only Byanyima and the Fdc know the pound of flesh kayibanda Rubatisirwa demanded for his goodwill. Anybody who has known the modus operandi of the pot bellied Rwandan knows he does not give free meals.

UAH’s Abbey Semuwemba, this is the tribalistic Rwandan thug you have the temerity to call “decent”. Give me a break.

I think FDC is making a huge blunder by making these sorts of backroom deals with kayibanda. It will come to haunt them one day, and they will live to regret it. Winnie Byanyima is scum, and I see no reason why FDC should sacrifice its credibility for her. She is a millstone around Besigye’s neck, and he can never be elected president with Winnie Byanyima holding his waist. Take it or leave, but that’s the fact.What I am saying here is that this UNAIDS appointment has the hallmarks of a case of ‘scratch my back and I will scratch yours’.

NRM is going to leave Uganda in real trouble

By Daniel Bwanika via the UAH forum

UTL story is not about to end until Uganda parliament re-nationalises the telecom sector . This too requires to have a vibrant innovative telecommunication engineering sector. The market is already there and is growing.I now understand that in the USA there regions that have no access to the internet, for example, since they lack a telephone network!

UTL can undercut prices and provide: Data, Information, Education,Entertainment, Internet, Voice, Image , Health networks at far higherspeeds than relay satellite network.It is therefore players in the above sectors on whose behalf Anite can be eliminated.

Who has the ability to eavesdrop or tap wire conversations in Uganda if not Uganda security agencies?

This article was written in the 90s just before Uganda Posts and Telecommunication was disbanded. I remember we discussed the issue of the telecommunication on ugnet then J. Nkuuhe, Muntu and others.

This article was picked by a certain Nigerian professor and published in the New African Magazine.

National Telecoms – as Societal Organised System Networks

If we asked today how many outpatients and inpatients were registered
in one health care centre AND HOSPITALS in the country where can such
that data be got?

If we were to ask how many children were admitted to primary education
and how many have since fallen out of the system where can that data

For matter of planning, if we asked how many people are located in
every district town centre and thus pays tax where is the information
and how can it be got?

If the state were to provide the provisions of electricity, water,
telephony how can we get the information about housing facilities in
every district town or municipal centre?

If we wanted to plan for meat export for example- where could we be
able to get an approximate cattle population and what we can consume
at a sustainable replacement rate?

Today we have more than 10 university campus how possible can one
easily communicates on research and academic issues – let us say solve
a complexes mathematical question where a knowledgeable person in
these matters is located at Kumi university campus?

Local district administrative points have a communication networks how
then is the information sent to the centre for planning or how does
the centre monitor what is taking place at local centres?

National telecommunication infrastructures are absolute necessities
for developmental purposes. If one was to reference any one world
organisations statistical data about Uganda one will be surprised by
the way erroneous figures are printed and then said to be
representative of national data banks.

I have written before that the problems, which Africa faces, are not
economic, as economic prophets’ claims but they are rather

There is total lack of communications infrastructures, which will link
up all rural areas, mediating multiethnic societies and cultures,
networking for a common social action and hence generating harmonious
economic and business activities metamorphosing into national
socio-economic structures.

Claims that mobile phone and the privatisation of the
telecommunication sector, will lead to HARMONISING THE SHORT FALLS in
socio-economic organisation, does not hold, will be proved wrong and
will fail big time since the state organising structure have got no
control over their activities. Private sectors are there to maximise
profits but not build social networks therefore private networks are
confined geographically.

The problem with African telecoms is EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT or listed on
to the stock exchange, in order to attain productivity and efficiency
but not fragmentation and competition. If nation states want
competition in the sector, then National telecommunication companies
should be decentralised to regional, district or provincial level with
very clear objective and expert management for long term increases in
region productivity and efficiency with the centre. (see below)

There is no African Country today, which does not have a university/
ies, tertiary or vocational institutes and primary or secondary
schools network. On top of that, there is an extensive healthy network
system, public administration networks and trade on regional, district
or provincial levels, national to national level though not thoroughly
FUNCTIONAL AND OPERATIONAL in the most efficient and socially
productive manner. This is what are called economic problems rather

These are the structures,- social structures, which can generate and
support the National Telecoms economically in Africa, hence creating
the economy, which befits and can sustain a modern telecom
infrastructure. Advanced nations have reached the optimal level of
efficiency and productivity levels within these sectors, a reason why
they are looking for high-speed technologies to capture distance and
time outside their boundaries.

I can argue that as several national state societies are struggling to
form nations, these social structures are still rudimentary
structurally and required to stimulate internal growth. Present Africa
social structures are only generating traditional localised views-
hindering liberation of local knowledge exchange. In a sense, I can
argue that Africa has no society to society, group to group,
administrative to administrative COMMUNICATION AND ORGANISATION on a
national level. Where there is lack of such infrastructure,
communication is blocked or slow hence the problems socially becomes
even more complex, generating three other major problems Africans are
struggling with which are as follows; –

1. Lack of efficient management of multiethnic society or cultural
business /economies,
2. Timing
3. Monitoring and Control of both the private and public
socio-economic actions.

These are the main social problems, which manifests or simply
interpreted as economic problems- they are simply social
organisational problems, which must be solved first through systematic
structural social organisation. They can’t be solved through
privatisation since privatisation is hinged on individual desire to
maximise individual efforts but not national or society goal. In fact
such structure generates business and bureaucratic nepotism which is
so rampant in Africa because of kin and ethnic affiliations- thus
socially and economically retrogressive. Therefore, social structures
on a national level in Africa can be characterised as inferior
structures, which do not cause a nation state functionally

The solution is to use information communications infrastructure and
national telecoms as an organisational infrastructure to decentralise
administrative organs and hence competent on regional revels.

Besides the negative heterogeneous African social structures, those
structures are equally positive in the present state of socio-economic
state, with rapid mobility of labour and high communications
technological and proliferation into society- therefore Africa must
utilise these social structures optimally to create MODERN
telecommunications infrastructure.

By virtual of there existence, these social system networks, I can
actually ascertain that Africa is blessed – therefore let the
activities of the national state be decentralised to meet local
demands and views which later will evolve onto national level
economically and technologically. Usually, the economy is basically
founded on three principal demands namely: FOOD, SHELTER AND HEALTHY
which are factor components of the primary ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE on
which the TELECOM INDUSTRY in African should be FOUNDED.

Food is the agricultural sector and the predominant activity on the
African continent. Microwave climatic monitoring and dissemination of
information, for agricultural production does generate it is own
economy, which can sustain its own telecom networking industry. Since
agriculture is a necessity, it does also cause quick adaptability to
the information technological structures.

Shelter does compose housing, general construction sector and hygienic
sectors, which in social terms, calls for national organisational
structures hence an economy. The telecom industry in African can play
a huge role in harmonising healthy care, schools, and pre-urban
structural organisation and communication from the CENTRE to the
PERIPHERY -decentralisation of telecommunications infrastructure.

Healthy care in African could be so cheap if the National telecoms
where a bit more involved in determining the geographical distribution
of disease something which can be done through collecting data using
CARTOGRAPHIC methods to map out DRUG DISTRIBUTION, resource allocation
(man power and capital input), disease distribution. The
telecommunication industry is a harbinger in this regard with high
economic returns. How much does it cost to make a geographical
information map? You need data, which can quickly be transferred
through telecommunication infrastructures.

The last point if can be attained on regional levels then can generate
a self-sustaining financing national medical /agricultural /school
research network, administrative network etc. All, which for efficient
management and productive running can only be done through grounding
national telecoms network to pursue such socially productive sectors
in that particular location or regions on the African continent.

Compensatory networks, which are short term and self-financing, are
the TAXING SYSTEM networks. Every regional centre and trading nodes
must be connected into a network loop. Such a network calls for low
level law enforcing network to join like Traffic monitoring, customs,
and boarder to board crossing trade networks.

Then comes the media network, PUBLIC UTILITIES like water and sewerage
utilities, electricity distribution, postal activities, banking and
insurance networks etc. Such entities are self-sustaining which must
be linked to social system networks provided for by National telecoms
to generate national revenues for further social -technological
development. The problem with all the above-mentioned entities is not
are lacking to cause profit maximisation.

I do not understand therefore, what is meant with non-performing
African telecommunication facilities or what privatisation is really
going to provide African societies with such service without the
political weal, social structures, within the nation state concerned.


Every country in Africa should start regional, district or provincial
data gathering centre, which will be connected, to the national
archiving centres.

The region or provincial centres must be financed partly by district,
regional or provisional budgets but mandate by the law. This is the
only way ICT and the telecom industry will percolate the traditional
organisation social structures, whence the African telecom markets can
be then derived. I mentioned the following which the African states
can organise to facilitate for the telecom growth which must be done
and provided for by the region budget for telecom offices against a
socially viable pay; –

1. Population gathering and census
2. School enrolment and output
3. Region market labour activities
4. Agricultural and food production outs and input
5. Fertility and Mortality rates from region healthy centres
6. River and stream hydrological data
7. Flora and fauna /taxonomy data
8. Disease maps and drug distribution /information
9. Tax revenue (region/provincial) collection and report
10. Industrial production data
11. Household data on family socio-economic status
12. Traffic and motor vehicle data
13. Chemical or environmental data
14. Climatology data
15. Land and survey data
16. Pre-urban housing data

All the above should be done on regional, provincial and district
level (strictly not on national level) hence creating the functional
awareness locally while triggering operational structures for
I called a social superior structure and liberating social doing.
Claims that African states do not have the means do not hold. With
this structure in place, all states will divest from above duties and
delegate them near to the people concerned hence causing local,
participatory, popularistic appeal and solving the problem I mentioned
above organisation communication, monitoring, time perspective and
control. It will therefore call for seeking local solution to capital
input like popularising data collection methods and capital input both
human and fixed. That is the role the national telecommunication
should purse vigorously- pass on the article to you respective
government for action.

Management of African telecommunications sector does not mean ownership.

Bwanika .


Ancient Egyptians were closer to Armenians than to Africans

By Rahimu Jabendo via the UAH forum
Egypt is an intensively sophisticated society right from the times of Joseph till now, but aside the little details like the fact that they bury their Pharaohs who then become mummies, what else do you know about this country that is believed to be the richest country ever? Let us run through a few.
1) Egypt presently occupies a land mass of 1million square kilometers making it one of the largest countries in the world. And with a population of over 88million, it is a very dense country. The primary language is Arabic. And their cultural rulers are called Pharaohs.
2) In ancient times, the Egyptians built elaborate structures called pyramids just to serve as tombs for their Pharaohs! And it wasn’t the Israelites that built all of them, the Egyptians used to hire labourers to build the pyramids.
3) It is believed that each pyramid in Egypt houses one Pharaoh and his entire family members and concubines. Therefore when you are in an Egyptian pyramid, watch out for a few ghosts.
4) The Egyptians were the first to believe in the afterlife. Long before Jesus Christ brought the message of redemption, the Egyptians always believed that preserving a dead person’s body through the process of mummification, their soul would live in peace in the world to come. It is still not clear if the mummies used to come back to life though.
5) The ancient Egyptians believed in more than 2000 gods! In fact some Egyptian priests used to spend two years attempting to pray to all the gods and still it was too much. The study of the Egyptian gods too is even more fascinating than that of Greece and Rome.
6) Cats are actually considered sacred animals in Egypt. Every house has a pet cat which brings goodluck and chases away evil spirit, just like the cat from The Mummy.
7) Tue ancient Egyptians invented paper, pens, locks and keys and most important of all, they invented toothpaste!! So when next you brush your teeth in the morning thank the Egyptians for discovering a tool that fights mouth odour. The pens invented were used to write down the ancient Egyptian alphabets which had over 700 characters.
8) The Egyptians also invented the 365 days a year calendar divided into 12 months. This was invented to predict the annual flooding of the Nile. The Egyptians also wrote the first ever book about mathematics in 1650 BC.
9) Equality began in Egypt. In ancient Egypt, women had as much rights as male with some females having even more rights than the males. Women could assume several offices such as the office of Pharaoh!!! So if you are a feminist, Egypt is for you.
10) In ancient Egypt, beer was used to pay labourers,if you go to Egypt and want a job make sure you inform the owner that you wouldn’t want to be paid with beer.

Today, we explore some special facts about the cutest bird in the entire planet

By Rahimu Jabendo via the UAH forum
Penguins are some of the most recognizable beloved birds in the world. They are amazing because of their physical adaptations to survive unusual climates and live mostly at sea. Today, we explore some special facts about the cutest bird in the entire planet.

1. The number of existing penguin species is debated but estimates fall in the range of 17 and 20. 17 of these species are found exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere.

2. Penguins can drink salt water because they have a supraorbital gland located above their eyes which helps them filter the salt from the water.

3. Emperor Penguins are the tallest species, standing nearly 4 feet tall.

4. Though penguins are birds, they lost the ability to fly millions of years ago, but their powerful flippers and streamlined body make them very accomplished swimmers. The fastest specie is Gentoo Penguins, which can reach swimming speeds of 22 mph.

5. A penguin’s wing act the same way while it is swimming as a bird do while it is flying. So penguins essentially fly through water. 😀

6. Penguins are one of the most publicized species of animals that form lasting homosexual couples. Male penguins have severally been observed having sex with other male penguins.

7. Penguins black and white plumage serves as camouflage while swimming. The black plumage on their back is hard to see from above, while the white plumage on their front looks like the sun reflecting off the surface of the water when seen from below.

8. Unlike most birds which lose and replace a few feathers at a time, penguins molt all at once, spending two or three weeks land-bound as they undergo what is called ‘catastrophic molt.’

9. Parents and chicks use their good sense of hearing to locate one another in crowded colonies. When mothers lose their chick, they sometimes attempt to ‘kidnap’ another mother’s chick.

10. Unlike other birds, male penguins incubate the female’s eggs. Emperor Penguin males incubate the female’s eggs for 2 months in the winter without eating while females are at sea. During that time males live off their fat reserves and may lose half of their body weight. When the females return shortly after the eggs hatch, they switch parental duties, and the females fast while the males go to sea to replenish their fat stores.

The Secret Service was established on the day Abraham Lincoln was assassinated

By Rahimu Jabendo via the UAH forum
Most of us are aware of the existence of the Secret Service, the government agency best known for providing security details for the presidents of the United States of America. In movies, they wear sunglasses with dark lenses and have earpieces. In reality, there are decade’s worth of secrets hidden amongst its history.

The Secret Service was established on the day Abraham Lincoln was assassinated. Lincoln approved the idea of establishing the Secret Service on April 14, 1865. Later that night, the president went to the theatre where he was shot in the head.

On today’s history files, we will try to lift the veil of secrecy and learn a bit more about the mysterious organization.

1. The current president isn’t only protected by the Secret Service. Protection covers the family of the president, former presidents and their families and foreign presidents visiting the United States of America.

2. The Secret Service agents protecting the president travel with bags of the president’s blood. They are always ready to use their medical skills to perform a blood transfusion on the president if needed.

3. They make sure the president is never alone, even in the bathroom. The president can’t stay alone with a doctor without an agent as an escort no matter what the president’s problem is. And if they suspect any kind of foul play, they shoot the doctor immediately!

4. They participate in the president’s hobby. Because the president is never alone, agents have to participate in everything in his life so they are often forced to learn new hobbies. Bill Clinton was a well-conditioned jogger which forced his agents to be in great shape in order to be able to keep up. 😀

5. Secret Service uses code names for presidents, it’s not a Hollywood fantasy. For example, Obama was “Renegade,” George Bush was “Tumbler,” Bill Clinton was “Eagle” and Richard Nixon was “Searchlight”

6. The quickest way to annoy a Secret Service agent is asking him to carry your luggage. They won’t agree to carry bags even at the command of the president because their hands are always on their waist. That enables them to be ready to react quickly and raise their weapons.

7. It might interest you to know that there’s an underground bunker that is used by the Secret Service to hide one government representative during an event where all other state officials gather. So if terrorists decide to slaughter the top tier of the government, they will probably fail.

8. The Secret Service headquarters is located in Washington in a building without any identification sign. There is not even a trash can nearby so there’s no place to install bomb.

9. The food of the president is under constant surveillance. Every bite of food presented to the president is prepared under the watchful eyes of the Secret Service, who stare down White House chefs to make sure no one is flavouring with arsenic or rat poison.

10. Surprisingly, Secret Service agents don’t swear to die for their president. It’s understood that something like that could happen but they take every possible step to avoid it. If an agent sacrifices their life for the president, they do it voluntarily. Only one Secret Service agent has died protecting his president since the organization was formed.

Obote never wanted to hurt Prince Mutebi in 1980s

By George Okello in London via UAH forum,
Prince Mutebi was freely let out of Uganda during Obote 2. I remember clearly that he was surrounded by Col John Ogole who was over-ruled by his boss President Milton Obote at the 11th hour before he launched an encirclement and suppression assault. He told Obote that he was not going to take any prisoners. Obote did not want Mutebi’s blood on hands and so allowed him to escape.

Buganda should celebrate the 14 August!

Prince Mutebi and his brother,omulangira Walugembe, charting to Idi Amin in 1974

By Tony Owana via the UAH forum
33 years ago, senior NRM/NRA operatives slipped Prince Ronald Muwenda Mutebi into Uganda via Busia, ending 20 years of exile and paving for the return of Buganda’s EBYAFFE.Strangely, the 14th of August is not an important day in Buganda and Iam sure most Nkoba za Mbogo and Bazzukulu do not know about it being the date of their renaissance.

I am in possession of NGABO newspaper of 15 August 1986 with the headline ‘MUTEBI YESOZZE KAMPALA MU KASIRISE’ written by Charles
Sinnabulya Mwanje and edited by Grace Simwogerere Ssekkeba and both
men plus Kabaka Mutebi are still alive. ‘New Vision’ reproduced this
old NGABO newspaper during coronation anniversary last year, a copy of which I also have. This reproduction was with permission from NGABO Publisher, Omutaka Ndugwa, Grace Semakula Musoke who is also still alive.

Among those who knew of Prince Mutebi’s secret entry is, Gen Elly
Tumwine, retired NRA/UPDF Brigadier Andrew Lugobe Lutaaya (Omutake w’e Ssese), ex-Director General of Internal Security Maj Gen Jim Muhwezi to name a few.

By the time Mutebi toured the NRA-liberated zones in 1985, Dr. Obote was exiled in Zambia and Col. Ogole exiled in Tanzania. There was no war at Katonga in January 1985 because Obote was still in power and NRA in Fort Portal. Did you mean January 1986? Mutebi visited Masaka in September (I think) 1985 and one of his escorts was
Gen Kasirye Ggwanga. Haji Kigongo was there, Col Amanya Mushega was there, Hon Gerald Sendawula was there and I think Brig Matiya Sewankambo was there too. Those who entertained Prince Mutebi (who arrived in a pickup) included Kalifan Muwonge, father of our late Erias Mulindwa Muwonge.I have video evidence of Prince Mutebi’s public meeting in Masaka soon after the Nairobi Peace Talks started and his visit was facilitated by NRA which was controlling this area.


By Rahimu Jabendo via the UAH forum
In 1801, Joseph Samuel, a British citizen was sent to a penal colony of Australia for engaging in robbery. In Australia, Samuel succeeded in escaping and with a gang, he robbed the home of a wealthy woman and in the process, a policeman named Joseph Luker, who was guarding her home, was murdered. In 1803 the authorities captured Samuel. During the trial, the woman identified Joseph Samuel as on of the culprits. Joseph admitted to the robbery but claimed he had not participated in the murder. The other members of the gang, including the leader of the gang, were released due to lack of evidence but because the woman identified Samuel, he was convicted and sentenced to death by hanging. On 26th of September 1803, Samuel and another criminal sentenced to death for another crime, were taken to Parramatta, where many people had gathered to watch the execution.
The common method of hanging then which caused death by slow strangulation was to fasten nooses around the neck of criminals, then drive the cart away after they had been allowed to pray with a priest. The ropes used were made of five cords of hemp, which enabled one to hold 1,000 lb (450 kg), for up to five minutes without breaking, more than sufficient for human executions.

When the rope was placed around their neck and the cart taken away, the other criminal ultimately died by strangulation but Samuel’s rope broke and he dropped to his feet, sustaining an injury in his ankle. The executioner hastily readied a new rope, also five-hemp, and placed it around Samuel’s neck, forced him onto the same cart, and drove the cart away again but this time the rope became loose and Samuel’s leg was able to touch the ground. The other criminal was still kicking weakly at this point. The executioner was sure to have fastened the noose securely around his neck, and as he stood Samuel up to try again, the crowd had become boisterous, calling for Samuel to be freed.

For the third time, the executioner very quickly readied another five-hemp rope, ordered the cart driven back, forced Samuel onto it, fastened the noose around his neck, secured it very carefully and tightly, and then ordered the cart driven away. The rope broke again, and Samuel dropped to the ground and stumbled over, trying to avoid landing on his sprained ankle.

Now the crowd watching the execution stood around in an uproar, and another policeman, watching on horseback, ordered the execution delayed momentarily, while he rode away to find the governor. The governor was summoned to the scene and upon inspection of the ropes, which showed no evidence of having been cut, and the other criminal, who was successfully executed with an identical rope, the governor and the entire crowd agreed that it was a sign from God that Joseph Samuel had not committed any crime deserving of execution and his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment instead. Parramatta’s town doctor tended to his sprained ankle.

Global warming is the result of human practices like emission of Greenhouse gases

By ‘rahimu jabendo’ via Ugandans at Heart (UAH) Community

This is one of the most publicized environmental problem faced in recent times, due to the grave consequences attached to it. Global warming is the result of human practices like emission of Greenhouse gases. A greenhouse gas (GHG) is a gas that absorbs and emits radant energy within the thermal infrared range. Greenhouse gases cause the greenhouse effect.The atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan also contain greenhouse gases. The primary GHG’s in the earth’s atmosphere are water vapor, carbondioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone, and it results in rising temperatures of the oceans and the earth’s surface causing melting of polar ice caps, rise in sea levels and also unnatural patterns of precipitation such as flash floods, excessive snow or desertification.

Scientists have predicted that If the emission of greenhouse gas continue at their rate in 2019, global warming could cause Earth’s surface temperature to exceed historical values as early as 2047, which will result to harmful effects on ecosystems, biodiversity and human livelihoods.

Greece is considered the first democracy in the world

By Rahimu Jabendo via the UAH forum
You probably know a lot about Greek gods and the likes, but what else do you know about Greece in general? Let’s put through a few.

1) Greece is considered the first democracy in the world. Long before people even figured out that voting makes sense, the Greeks used to vote for who would lead them, although it was restricted to just men, adult males, it was still pretty cool.

2) With an area of 50,949 square miles (131,958 square kilometers), Greece is a decently large country with a population of over 10million people.

3) During Summer, tourists who visit Greece outnumber the local indigenes, and the total population more than doubles. That is why Greece has the largest number of airports.

4) The saying ‘taking the bull by the horns’ actually originated from Greece, when Hercules saved Crete from a raging bill by dragging it’s horns. We don’t know if it truly happened, but it is still an awesome saying.

5) An Island in Greece, called Ikaria is one of the blue zones in the world, that is people live longer in those places. So if you want a longer life, you may want to go to Greece.

6) in Greece, waving at someone with an open palm is a great insult, so don’t wave, just shake.

7) The ancient Greek alphabets is actually the oldest ever form of writing even before the Romans invented their Roman numerals. So when next you encounter an alpha or beta sign, show it some respect.

8) The Greece believe that man was created by Prometheus while animals were created by his brother. They also believe that all the punishments sent to man came through Pandora in a box.

9) Greece is the world’s third largest producer of Olive as well as marbles.

10) The Greeks invented the Olympic games to honor Zeus. A cook actually won the first sprint race in the Olympics long before history knew about it.


By Abbey Kibirige Semuwemba via UAH forum
I don’t know if our political system and our mass media has always been this corrupt, or if it has become considerably worse in recent times. What I do know is that as a general election approaches, they really are going to pull out all the stops. There are a lot of headlines about Museveni, especially his wealth creation tours. Then there are a lot of stories about Bobi Wine(Oh, I sound like a ‘nuggu’ person there but I’m just pissed off a little bit). The international media has been the most surprising- whenever Bobi sneezes, they create a headline for him, they don’t even verify what he has posted on his facebook page- something they have never done for any other opposition leader in Uganda. Hopefully, they don’t end up with eggs on their faces!

I’m surprised nobody in the FDC is making noise about this.Besigye is Mr. Clean(incorruptible and weedless) and Mr.Principled- he just keeps carrying on with his human activism against the regime whether the media reports it or not, but his grassroot ‘sensitisation’ tours rarely make headlines in and out of the country. Yes, he is not a corrupt guy- with all their money and power, Museveni’s govt could find nothing that is disreputable or dishonest in his life. He is against Chinese loans that are burdening Uganda and other African countries.

Donors have never been pro-Besigye and that is sad.They are scared of a man like him being president because he can’t be bought. He will have access to things they don’t want him to have. He will expose the corruption that has gone on between them and Museven’s govt, and are petrified of that. That’s why there has been such a persistent campaign against him to make him look a four times failure in elections.Imagine having a man like that in Statehouse. The rich have every reason to keep decency and honesty out of Statehouse, so as not to prove how unequal society really is, and exactly how everyone else has been mugged off. Don’t be demoralised by the lies and smears and fake polls. Don’t give up hope. Another Uganda is possible with or without elections.

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