November 2008
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Month November 2008

Where has the aid gone?

A street in Kampala city

Everybody knows where aid money has gone. But nobody wants to face facts. The late Kisekka made the following comment, “Banayuganda sibategeera. Balaba ekintu ekikyamu bo kye bakola” That I do not understand Ugandans, they see something wrong and that is exactly what they choose to do.

The article in The Monitor which showed how Uganda is paying clossol amounts of money, billions every month, to maintain Presidential Advisers, and the chairman of the ruling Movement party, who do nothing but spy on the population on behalf of the Office of the President, should be an eye opener.

The money paid to Presidential Advisers should be used to build schools and to pay a decent salary to teachers so that teachers  in rural areas can be motivated enough to do their duties like urban teachers who perform well to the extent that their school perform very well.
The devourers of aid money are the innumerable political patronage personnel found in every aspect of Ugandan establishment. These people are appointed on just one merit, to push the interests of the politicl party in power. They virtually have no skills to talk about but they are appointed to high ranking positions where they do unprofessional things.

Like today we have a minister of finance but he does not have the ability to know that the economy of the country is suffering because the ordinary person fails to get change when buying merchandise. Failure to get change has caused indescribable suffering to low income earners, but Presdsent Museveni’s ministers cannot see this.

Go to the ATM machine where you are given 50 thousand Shilling notes. You go to buy goods with it you will spend a whole day without finding somebody who can change it into small denominations which the ordinary Ugandan peasants use. You need to travel by taxi and you are required to pay seven hundred shillings but you have a note of fifty thousand shillings. The taxi driver will punish you by either taking you another two miles away from yur destination in search of change or you will not be taken.

The point is , why cannot President Museveni appoint a minister of finance who knows what he is doing. The answer is ,he appoints only political patronage personnel who have no professional capacity to think out such things.

Some ten years ago the UNO put aside billions of dollors to specifically fund economic development in Africa like it was in Europe after World War Two when the USA gave Europe a mere 112 million dollors in the famous Marshal Aid programme.

The Europeans used that money intelligently and today all European countries are extremely prosperous.

But the billions given to Africa by the UNO were spent wastefully (or stolen), like Global Fund and Valley Dam money, it all vapourated into the air. That money did not do the kind of miracle the Mashall Aid money did to Europe. As a result Africa is still as poor as it was before aid money was offered. Indeed, we are so poor and ignorant you find Ugandans dying from giggers on their buttocks and armpits.

I have been tempted to conclude that Africans are of a low IQ but then there comes Barack Obama who has displayed  a rare IQ in outwitting the whites. You listen to Obama talking and yoou know you have an intellectual. But will our people follow Oboma’s examples? I doubt.

Briefly, the aid money we get is spent in making plans, including rigging elections, to keep the ruling parties in power.

Henry Ford Mirima

Bunyoro Kingdom spokesperson/journalist/writer

The History of Kigezi and Banyarwanda in Uganda

Executive Summary:

The then Kigezi district [that included the then British Rwanda-now called Bufumbira County or Kisoro district, Ruzhumbura/Mpororo County and the Chiga counties of Ndorwa and Rukiga] were incorporated into Uganda in 1914, not in 1926 as some discussants on forum are saying. So did the Ankole-Rwanda border areas inhabited by people of ‘Rwanda’ stock.

When we talk of former ‘British Rwanda’, other than German Rwanda [today’s Rwanda proper and a small part of Tanzania’s Kagera region ruled by the Bahinda princes then] we mean big chunks of Kabale’s Ndorwa county at the time ruled by one Katuregye, made ‘Gombolola Chief of Bufundi sub-county at the “Kigezi Conference” of 1914 whereby the boundaries of Kigezi District were outlined. {the venue od the conference, Kigezi place is 5 km East of Kisoro town. It gave the name to the district that only changed in 1980 during {perennial} Local Gov’t Ministers Bidandi Ssali’s de-tribalisation of district names]. The bigger chunk of British Rwanda was constitued though, by current Kisoro district. At the Kigezi conference of 1914 to demacarte the new Uganda’s South Western borders, a few noteworthy things happenned:

In distributing the new-order administrative roles, District Commissioner sent from Entebbe, D.C. Sullivan, chairing, appointed then Govorner of Bufumbira, Prince Nyindo the first ‘Saza chief’. Nyindo had hither to been in charge of Bufumbira the ‘marcher ‘[front-line] province on behalf of his Uncle, King Musinga of Rwanda then.

Reasearch at Makerere, especially if you look up the pages of the “Uganda Journal” on the subject, indicates that Nyindo and his subordinate, Chief Katurege [Gomboloa chief in charge of Bufundi sub-county, Minister Suruma’s home area] left the Kigezi conference dissatisfied after his protests were ignored, and declared war on the British soon after that, for ‘robbing’ part of their [Rwanda] Kingdom. They were unaware of the decisions of the Berlin conference exactly 30 years back [in 1884] that had put this fertile and picturesque panorama under the British [who wanted it as a simla for their Governors from Entebbe]. He was routed, fred to the Beligian sector (in current Congo) but then returned and handed himself over. He was exiled to Gulu and pardoned in 1920 after the insurgency had ended. He died at Rwentobo in Ntungamo with his entourage, including his A.D.C. one Rikikana Blasio continuing home to tell the tell. [He was interviewed in 1988 by Makerere researchers to re-confim the details of story before he died in 1989].

Another ‘funny’ decision of the Kigezi conference was the appointment of one Rwagara, head of the Basigyi clan, to be in charge of ALL the Bachiga in the new district, as Saza chief. He (curiously) rejected this new post, claiming, “..I do not want to rule the Bahiimba “[a rival clan, second in size the dominant Basigyi]. [Prof. Kanyeihamba is a Muhiimba by clan]. The Basigyi have ruled that decision up to today and the Bahiimba take any opportunity to tease them on this.

Some of the mis-marches in the current Kabale District administration may have their roots in this Basigyi-Bahimba inter-clan rivalry, {in addition to religious frictions endemic in the Kigezi area of course}.

Since the British were short of manpower, they appointed agents from Buganda to ‘teach’ the native chiefs administrative skills. Hence, the Munnansi-Mutongole-Muluka-Gombolola-Saza administrative hierachy was institued, with success one may say, since the Nyindo rebellion and the subsequent Ntoki-ibiri and Muhumuza rebellions were over come at the same time as WW-II was raging in the area [the Germans fought the British and the Belgians in a 2-front war in current Kisoro district. The prize: Muhabura [or so called ‘Mufumbiro’ mountains]. The British/Belgians won and Germany lost Rwanda and Burundi, both of which the League of Nations handed over to the Belgians. Tanganyika went to the British.

Ntok’ibiri [2 -ingured man] was an artful fighter who conducted guerrilla warfare in the British [Uganda side], German [Rwanda-Burundi-Tanzania] and Belgian [Congo] sectors. He was captured at the home of one Bikaaku, a British agent/spy (whose descendants live in Nyakishenyi sub-county to day) who lured him for a meal, by forces royal to the British, under the command of one Ssebalijja, administrative agent at Kabale District hearquarters. His left hand , with the trademark two fingures, was cut off, hung at the D.C’s office to dry and to scare the natives and later sent to Entebbe as proof that he was no more. Ntok’ibiri had a booty put on his head by the 3 colonial powers: Germany, Belgium and the British. Since he was distabelising their 3 territories at ago. he was so elusive though that he earned the nom-de- guerre, “Bicu-birenga” i.e. “wondering clounds” – because of his elusiveness. [here, I am quoting Hon. Mzee Nathan Bisamunyu, OB of Obote at Mwiri in 1948, first MP for Ruchiga Country from 1962, former and last MD, East African Habours Coorporation at Tanga and last MD of Uganda Posts & Telecomms under Idi Amin, Kigezi pioneer professional historian]. His contribution to the book, “A history of Kigezi” in MUK library is one of the sources used here.

Muhumuza [in Ruchiga. In Runyarwanda: Nyira-gahumuza] was the Queen-mother in-the-making whose son Buregyeya lost out in the succession war that broke out at the King’s court at Nyanza in 1896. It is said the Germans were involved to the disadvantage of his son. He fred with his supporters to Rukiga [meaning: the mountaineous part of the Rwanda Kingdom, now in Kabale District]. Interestingly, when she started war against the Kings of Rwanda, little did she know that the territory she was contesting was now painted ‘red’ on world maps – part of the British Empire on which the sun would never set [where from are these ghosts [white people] I hear of” ? – she is reported to have asked the seers, confused].

Many prominent Bachiga, like Paulo Ngorogoza [late Secretary General {today, RC-V Chairman} of Kigezi and first Papal Knight in the region] joined the Muhumuza forces, hoping for rewards on form of the cows that would ’emerge from the earth’ on defeating the Rwanda forces and restoring the Buregyeya [alias Ndungutse]to the Rwanda throne. Whom do they face instead: they found themselves engaging a formation of local British ensigns, including some Nubians, commanded by one Captain Reid [who had engaged Kabalega too, earlier on] and other agents re-inforcing from Kampala. Amid the confusion, Queen Muhumuza, daaghter of Nkanza and now called in official correspondance “the Queen of the Bachiga by the British (The Bachiga consider themselves natural Republicans] lost the battle at Eihanga hill [6 miles from Kabale, on Kisoro road]. The prince, who was carried on a small throne, placed on a stretcher, was never heard of in life after this battle. The British denied ever killing him and his followers believed [many now in Isingirocounty, Mbarara District] he is in a mistearious place, waiting to command them again [all of them are no more though].

Queen Muhumuza was exiled to Makindye in Kampala [she was allocated a 4-acre estate infront/opposite of the current Katwe Police station, at Kibuye, courtesy of Kabaka Daudi Chwa]. She became a heroine of the anti-colonial struggle and people from Kigezi still say that she lives in local folkrole and school songs. A road in kabale town is named after her. [Note: some people went to Mmengo recently taking gifts (okulanya) claiming the inheritance of this estate – Bukedee newspaper]. This lady and her many, long-horned cows, roaming makindye hill, was a spectacle from the 20’s to the 40’s when she died. The Baganda, amazed at the size of her breasts, nicknamed her “Nnabere”.

  What is 1926 then?

This is the year in which Uganda’s final borders were gazatted in the colonial office. WW-I had ended and many ex-soldiers were to be settled. therefore, part of Western Kenya, where even the Achdeacon of Maseno was appointed by Namirembe, were ceeded to “Kenya colony” – to later become parts of the ‘white highlands’ since, by the 1900 Buganda Agreement, Whites and Asians couls not own land in Buganda. The West-Nile northern border was finaly demarkated as part of Uganda deep beyond the original location. As a consequence, part of northern Acholi was ceeded to Sudan [the Agoro hills were hard to patrol, mbu-(one hears)]. It is at that time too, that the tribes existing in the borders were listed.

    Why did it take this long?

By fact of the Buganda Agreement, Uganda was a Protectorate, not a colony. The Uganda affairs were therefore handled by the British Foreign office, not by the Colonial office. The transfer of the Uganda file from the former to the later office in 1907 was , for decades to come, to be a source of contention between Mmengo and Whitehall, culminating the exile of H.M Sir Edward Mutesa-II in 1953 [other causes of the exile were the East African federation, which Buganda feared would make buganda un-recognisable  in the ‘forest’ of east African tribes which had been colonised yet, Buganda had not been colonised and felt she should enjoy ‘equal diplomatic’ relations].

Another fact that caused the ‘action’ of 1926 was that the new country was now fully surveyed by the ordinance office in London. The british now realised that they were not dealing with the Buganda of 1900 but a larger entity. To clarify matters, they therefore listed the ‘nationalities’ of the “new” Uganda.


Since the subject is the banyarwanda question, it may now be clear as to how ‘Banyarwanda-inhabited’ peoples came to be part of Uganda. It was not by the administrative action of 1926 but by the fact of the colonisation process whereby boundaries were drawn guided by the physical features of areas [the British wanted Kisoro/MUHABURA MOUNTAIN RANGES AT ANY COST. THE GERMANS WANTED IT. THE BELGIANS WANTED IT. SOLUTION: CUT THE RANGES INTO 3  and that is what happened. Here, the opinion of people who inihabited the place wanted was not sought, like in all colonial-partition cases.

Another factor: I agree with those who distinguish and do not confuse the Banyarwanda refugees who came in after the 1959 Rwanda revolution.

It is not right too, to assume that the Banyarwanda-Barundi emmigrant labourers (like the lugbara were also coming in from West Nile and North-Eastern Congo but they were not sufficient in numbers to meet the required human resouce capacities] who came to work on the coffee shambas in Buganda and on the Indian sugar and tea plantations [by arrangement of the Belgian and British governements] were part of the 1926 enumeration, even though they started arriving after WW-I. At this time, they were willing to return after the compulsory 6-month tours of duty (their earnings were withheld till end of contracts-akasaanvu [see Prof. Mamdan on the history of this emmigrant labour]. That, like Ukrainians, Hungarians, the Irish people who go to America and become assimilated after one generation, these emmigrant laborers eventually stayed sa result of many factors but one of them may be, being that the employers may have found it economically not cost-effective to loose ‘skilled’ labour every six months/so frequently and may be enforcement of ‘end of contracts’ [akasaanvu’] became un-necessary on the part of the employers as well as the colonial administration that needed the forkforce. Social factors, adaptability and the Cruel Belgian rule in the newly “mandated territories” of rwanda Rwanda and Burindi may have been contributing factors too. This became self-evedent again when the same British recruited some of them to fight the Germans in WW-II, along with many Ugandans. They then became subjects of the British crown and the rest is history.

Christopher Muwanga,




Nkunda war in DRC

it’s true Nkunda was part of government, but unlike Baganda, Basoga, West Nilers, Banyankore and Acholi, who were in UPC when their people were being victimised by Obote, Nkunda (like John Garang) abandoned governmwent and joined his people in rebellion. His demands are not many. He wants Banyamulenge and other marginalised people to be recognised by Congo. But remember that DR Congo is supposed to be a federal state so it is better for Nkunda to be Governor of Kivu both south and north other than a minister or senuior military officer in Kinshasa. According to press reports here, both Kabila and Kagame are soon agreeing on a joint operation against Intarehamwe and Hutu militia’s safe heavens in Congo. We should not dismember colonial states, we should go for regional integration. Fortunately Khartoum and Juba have applied for membership of East Africa Community. In the first community, Zambia, Ethiopia and Somalia applied and we hesitated to admit them. May be the community would have been spared from personal clashes between Nyerere, Amin and Kenyatta.

l think DR Congo should not be broken up. You remember Ethiopia was broken up but that did not stop wars between Ethiopia and Eritrea. Even if Southern Sudan becomes independent, it will not stop war in Darful or Kassala. If we start breaking the colonial states, Africa will be no more because with the tribalism that has been rekindled, we may go back to pre-colonial nation states. Some of us are lucky we had some, but there are those that were still in bonds! If Kabila does not accept to integrade Nkunda and his rebels, and to chase away negative forces, let’s remove him.

Ahmed Katerega Musazi

(NewVision newspaper)

Buganda comprises 18 Counties (Amasaza)

Buganda comprises 18 Counties (Amasaza), before it used to comprise 20 counties before Buyaga and Bugangaizi were returned to Bunyoro. The counties are part and parcel of Buganda kingdom and its administration in both the Federal arrangement and traditions. The counties together with the respective Chiefs are:
1. Buruuli ……………… Kimbugwe
2. Buddu ………………. Pokino
3. Busiro ………………. Ssebwana
4. Buweekula …………. Luweekula
5. Busujju ……………… Kasujju
6. Bugerere ……………. Mugerere
7. Buvuma ……………… Mbuubi
8. Butambala ………….. Katambala
9. Bulemeezi ………….. Kkangawo
10. Ggomba …………… Kitunzi
11. Kabula ……………… Lumaama
12. Kkooki ……………… Kamuswaga
13. Kyaddondo ………… Kaggo
14. Kyaggwe …………… Ssekiboobo
15. Mawokota ………….. Kayima
16. Mawogola …………… Muteesa
17. Ssingo ………………. Mukwenda
18. Ssese ……………….. Kweba
19. Buyaga ……………… Kyambalango
20. Bugangaizi …………. Kiyimba
Mugema is the head of the Nkima clan and is also regarded as Jjajja w’Obuganda after Abatakansi sent Omutaka Katumba of the Nkima clan to Bunyoro to bring along Omulangira Kimera who had been sired by the son of Kabaka Ccwa Nabakka, Omulangira Kalemeera with one of the Omukama of Bunyoro’s concubines – Wanyana.Buganda still and will always use this administrative structure until Jesus Christ comes back.


Yoga Adhola

In his reflections on the NRM published in The Weekly Observer of August 14-20, 2008 Amanya Mushega is quoted accusing Obote of dominating UPC (Mushega: Why I am not NRM).

“There was the question of a leader dominating the organisation to the extent that between the party and the individual, you cannot tell the difference”, he says.

“When you personalise something, when you die, it also dies. This has now happened to UPC. It has died with Obote”.While this kind of reasoning could appeal to some half-baked minds, it cannot withstand serious scrutiny. Obote never sought to personalise UPC. Given the level of social development attained by the areas where UPC was, the personalising of issues was inevitable and could not be avoided.

No less an authority than Fredrick Engels had this to say: “At a certain stage, through which all civilised peoples passed, he (mankind) assimilates them (forces of nature) by means [of] personification. It was this urge to personify which created gods everywhere…..” (‘Anti-Duhring’ by F. Engels).

The daily life of a peasant in a village in Uganda cannot be explained to him by way of economic theories or sociology or political science taught at Makerere because of the unlikelihood of him being educated at all. However, the absence of that education does not stop the peasant from attempting to explain his environment as well as finding his way through life and society.

In their attempt to explain and find their way, the simple minds of the peasants tend to project the simple model of interpersonal relations they are accustomed to in their daily life in all social events, processes and structures. They sometimes extend this projection to natural phenomena as well. And in this extension, just as they experience people controlling aspects of their social existence, they also end up supposing that, likewise, there are super ordinate beings beyond their comprehension which control these natural events and processes.

In the absence of any other explanation other than immediate experience, these super ordinate beings take the form of human beings. Its nature is conceived as a process set in motion (creation) and controlled by gods who also control social processes.

And those human beings who demonstrate greater ability to handle social processes and forces such as politics much better than others are also ascribed supernatural powers. This ascription is what the famous German sociologist, Max Weber called charisma.

We may not agree as to whether Obote had exceptional ability or not. What however is important is that his followers believed he did. With that belief they allowed themselves to be led by him. This is an objective fact we cannot dismiss.

Of course educated people like Amanya Mushega and Aggrey Awori do not share the mind-set of the members of UPC who are susceptible to Obote’s charisma. People like Amanya

Mushega and Aggrey Awori, by virtue of their education, are endowed with the necessary knowledge to explain social and political processes.

As we have already seen, UPC needed and does need charismatic leadership. Space does not allow us to delineate the social conditions that spawn a charismatic leader.

I shall however give some examples of political parties which are organized through charisma, beginning with the Indian National Congress.

Mahatma Gandhi, the legendry leader of the Indian National Congress was a charismatic leader. He passed on this quality to Jawaharlal Nehru. From Nehru, the charisma was passed on to his daughter, Indira Gandhi. An attempt was being made to transfer charisma from Indira to her son, Sanjay Gandhi when he died in a plane crash. In a very suave move, Rajiv Gandhi was made Secretary General of the party. While holding that position, charisma was transferred to him. And then when his mother died, he took over the mantle of the party.

With the assassination of Rajiv, Congress had run out of he biological relatives of Nehru. However, Congress did not give up on charisma. They bestowed it on Rajiv’s widow, Italian- born Sonia Gandhi and run her for the last elections in India. We know that congress (I) scored a resounding victory.

And yet the Indian National Congress is not the only party where charisma has been an instrument of political organization.

The same process is being played out in neighbouring Pakistan after the death of its one time leader Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, where Aggrey Awori could have argued that since Bhutto “personalised” the party, his death was the end of his party, Pakistan Peoples Party. Once charisma has taken root, it can be revived at any other time.

The given examples I believe should be enough to refute Aggrey Awori’s mediocre attempts to run down Milton Obote. It should also explain to Amanya Mushega why Milton Obote seemed to dominate UPC to the point where it was difficult to tell the difference between him and the party.

Yoga Adhola is the former Editor-in-Chief of The People Newspaper and a leading ideologue of the party.


Reply by
Lt.Otto Patrick
That conceptual muddle by an individual who is touted as a ‘leading UPC ideologue’ clearly symptomatises the extent to which that party is ideologically barren.
Let me confine myself just to the concepts that Mr Adhola flippantly deploys in that article:
Dr Obote (and other leaders in Uganda) have been accused of personalising organisations.  Mr Adhola, almost from nowhere, slides to the concept of personification in Marxist literature.  By quoting Engels, he commits the logical fallacy of ‘appeal to authority’, just like some one who wants to demonstate that he understands the word ‘gravity’, whatever context of its use, by reciting Newtonian physics.  Personalisation refers FIRST to the failure to institutionalise an organisation…failing to make it autonomous (from the Obote family in UPC case or M7 in case of NRM); SECONDLY, the failure to develop coherent procedures and systems and THIRDLY, failure make the organisation adaptable to new generations, new challenges, new functions etc.  The real test of the level of institutionalisation of an organisation is whether it can outlive the name of the founder….UPC, INC of India, and the party in Pakistan that has been passed on to the apolitical son of Benazir are typical examples of poorly institutionalised outfits.
On the other hand, the ‘personification’ Engels was referring to is man’s attempt to interpret his surroundings by dressing up every object, process and phenomenon with human characteristics, and even going ahead to give them names and gender…rocks, mountains, big trees, droughts…due to a low level of scientific know-how and ability to abstract phillosophically. The naming of hurricanes is a typical case of personification. Personification is a term that we use to classify approaches to perception, interpretation and formation of ideas/myths etc. Nothing to do with management style!
Mr Adhola misses the point on that also.  Charisma has nothing to do with exciting, whipping up mobs, stirring up and provoking crowds (Everybody, UPC; ah, ah, UPC!…and then going through the alphabet of districts: Apac, Arua..etc end of speech!).  Infact what Yoga belabours in his article is Mr Obote’s capacity to excite ordinary  folks…populism, cheap popularism and demagoguery that may have nothing to do with principles/ideology.  Charisma refers to compelling attractiveness or charm that inspires unwavering devotion, to the point of making people risk their lives for your purposes/cause etc…we did not see alot of that in Obote’s leadership/followership!
Mw Nyerere was charismatic, but he did not hand CCM the Wazanaki, or to the Kambarage family, so was Churchill, whose charisma did not affect the continuity of the Tory party.  Mandela is charismatic, but he did not pass the ANC on to members of his family, who by the way are also charismatic in their own right.  It is one thing to be personalistic and another thing to be charismatic.

Charisma is a personal attribute.  It can be inheritted, but it is never passed down as the estate of the deceased, like Mr Adhola is trying to imply as he talks about the political organisations in pre-industrial Asia, as if to justify the frailties of UPC by asserting that even the Pakistanese and Indians do these things.  Those parties in Pakistan and India have been turned into dynasties…that is not to credit them; and it is no cause to emulate their example.

L/Cpl (rtd) Otto Patrick.

De law however harsh can’t end witchcraft/Only education of the mind

.hmmessage P { margin:0px; padding:0px } body.hmmessage { font-size: 10pt; font-family:Verdana } The issues of  demonic spirits aka, emisambwa, abalogo, emizimu, etc..are not  simple matters which can be  directed  to the Ministry of education for educators to “educate the mind…!”  For goodness sake, this is  a spiritual matter, which can only be fought and dealt with in the spiritual realms.

The most unfortunate part of the problem is that witchcraft is worshiped all the way from the top. for instance, Museveni, believes that the practice of witch-craft is a ‘religion” of some sort.  Therefore, he would not interfere with them as long as  they describe themselves as such.

In the case of his Vice-President, Bukenya, it is not too long ago when he was caught visiting and consulting with a witch  somewhere in Masaka.

The Bible teaches us that we do not fight against “flesh and blood but against principalities in the heavenly places…” The things of the spirit are dealt with from a spiritual angle, in the same way, physical things are dealt with from a physical point of view.

It is high time the church in Uganda stood up and be counted in the war against the spirit behind human sacrifices. This is not a war the Police, Jugdes, politicians or educators can fight, because, evidently, we now know some of the top officials in the categories mentioned are practicing member’s of the organized with-craft society.


Does Uganda care about its children(Asuman)

State of child welfare in Uganda

By Balaba Asuman Student Makerere University P.O.Box 7062 Kampala

+256752536771, +256775519571

How child friendly is your country? Should parents or the state be held accountable for the well being of children? Does a country’s wealth guarantee better welfare for children? Should the state interfere in the how parents treat or bring up their children?

In Africa and the world  at large, it is the responsibility of the nationals and the government entrusted to power, to create an enabling environment geared at safeguarding child rights and well-being of children because they are the future governors of the next generation. To answer the above question I will base on the NGOs findings and general observation of the situation in Uganda.

African Network on Prevention and Protection against Child Abuse and Neglect (ANPPCAN) had frequently reported a high level of child abuse in districts of Uganda. ANPPCAN, research reveals child abuse despite wide exposure by the media and other research institution.

Children have been abused physically, sexually and neglected in that out of 16,800 cases of child abuse 95 percent were committed by male aggressor and 5% by female. The sexual abuse takes (82.9 percent) 13,929, physical abuse (9.9 percent) 1670 and neglect with (2.6percent) 450, while a total of (4.5percent) 751 cases were not classified.

The compiled report from judicial proceedings totaled 1808 cases with Lira having the highest of 221 cases, followed by Mbarara 182, Mubende 136 and Moroto , Buganda Road and Masindi had few cases, 2, 5 and 6 respectively.

On regional level out of 8681 cases, western had 31.1%, followed by central 29.1%, eastern 22.7 and northern with 17.7%. District level, out of 3103 Jinja had 509 with the highest figure, followed by Masaka 419, Pallisa 399, Lira 359, Kira Rd ( Kampala ) 339 and Mpigi 312.

The cause of child abuse has been brought by cultural practices like early marriage with the desire to get dowry, inheritance of the deceased which is found out that most people donʼt use the responsibility entrusted of taking care to children. Also ignorance about the existence of laws to the public has been instrumental hence lagging the effective implementation of ANPPCAN objectives.

There also challenged with limited funding from government in that more emphasise is on child health care like fighting Malaria, Polio among others and little is forwarded to stop child abuse.

ANPPCAN does advocacy work targeted to policy makers to steer the programmes into force like enacting laws to punish the culprits involved. Giving children skills in decision making, build confidence and creating awareness to the public is essential to be focused on, but it wonʼt be possible if there is no proper implementation of policies and law to enhance child rights.

There is need for law enforcers to deal with the aggressors without favouritism promoted by corruption, as well dealing with parents, Guardian or authorities who at times settle matters in the curtain intentioned to bribes given.

Protection of children is everyoneʼs responsibility, for a better Uganda, tomorrow and forever.

ANPPCAN Uganda chapter was established in 1992 being part of the continental Pan-African movement with offices along Kira Rd to advocate for the rights of children and it work with other NGOs like Uganda human rights commission (UHRC), FIDA (Uganda women lawyers association), and Media in the country.

Those abused are in the age bracket of 8-17 and cases ANPPCAN had taken action includes defilement maintenances, parental neglect, child starvation, indecent assault, abandoned, alleged child sacrifice and giving support to former child domestic workers like education.

Does Uganda care about its children?

You have asked a proper question. Does Uganda care about its children? The answer is; No it does not. This is my observation. It is based on the fact that the killing of innocent children for ritual sacrifice has taken on the angle of tacit acceptance/approval by the state. Even Uganda parents who should normally be abhorred by reports of children being sacrificed, are also silent in a gesture that shows they also approve of the ritual killings of children.

If the state had cared about its children the current rampant kusaaddaaka of children including the calous one where a girl of 12 years was killed in a very painful manner where she was placed in a ditch and a mixture of concrete poured over her, even ignoring her cries, then state should have mounted a nationwide search for the tycoon who killed this girl.

But even Parliament has shown no concern otherwise the cabinet should have brouhgt a motion to outlaw witchcraft and stiffen laws against ritual sacrifice.

The possibility is that the people who should implement these laws are themselves believers in ritual sacrifice, believers in witch-carft, and most probably their huge buildings we see in Kampala are standing on the skeltons of these chlidren.

Henry Ford Mirima

Forget Obote and 1966 Lubili attack

“Buganda should forget Dr. Obote, who has long departed to join his
creator, and move on with what is here to be done if they are to avoid
becoming irrelevant in the Ugandan context.”

My friend Abbey Semuwembo,

Your article was great in your attempt to place the blame on Dr. Milton Obote’s door steps. I was indeed intrigued by it since one of the problems we are having in Uganda is not so much the presence of people like Milton Obote amongst us, but rather rewriters of Ugandan history camouflaged in their unquenchable thirst to paint Mr. Obote such terrible negative pictures. Let me quickly mention here that if Dr. Obote was really that stupid and dump, how could the whole Buganda Kabaka in the person of Sir Fredderick Edward Mutesa accept to join hands with him and form the first post colonial Uganda Government knowing well that the historical turn would determine the fate of a virgin country like Uganda. And more, if Dr. Obote was really such an imbecile, how could he have convinced all those “intelligent” Ugandans at the turn of Uganda’s political history and work his way into
becoming the Prime Minister of Uganda with a gun shot, live alone any weapon for that matter. It all goes to say that DR. Milton Obote was a
brain to recon with. I swear that if Museveni had existed then, with his militaristic mannerism, the British would not have granted Buganda
and Uganda Independence at the time when they did it.

Let me now get the second point as food for thought for you here, Kabaka Sir Frederick Edward Mutesa II admits and mentions it in his own words in his book, “The of my Kingdom”, that he sought for military ware from the British Government who turned it down. So he went elsewhere to get the weaponry. His ultimate motive was to start a war if need be. To this therefore, he sought for an approval from the Lukiiko to legitimize his actions. That is why the Lukiiko had to pass it and request the Uganda Government to move out of Buganda. What you continue not to mention in your skewed argument is that, Amin, who was the commander of the Army at the time, was already well aware of the animosity that some Baganda had on him, and there was also the talk about him being censured for his participation in the mutiny in the army in Jinja in particular. Secondly Amin was already aware also that
his actions in subduing the Sudanese rebels in Southern Sudan, and the massacre he carried out in Kenya when he was sent to recapture and
return the stolen cattle from the Kenyan Turkana, were issues already
coming out in the parliament of Uganda. Let me also mention that one
of the reasons for the mutiny in Magamaga was because of the fear that
the Amins were having, including Tito Okello, about the eminent
retrenchment in the Army following a parliamentary advice to the
Government to professionalize the Uganda Armed services.
Now, you say Dr. Obote breached the 1962 Constitution, which constitution was already in trouble because there was a section of the Baganda who were already calling it the “ebbiyoya bya enswa”. The constitution was already headed for a crisis within Buganda, since it emphasized the supremacy of Uganda as an entity in the new country. The Kabaka wanted to have both his roles reflected in the Constitution of Uganda. There were people who then suggested and preferred the creation of a country where the interest of all Ugandans could be taken care of inclusively under the same flag. Some Baganda then realized that they were not going to have their way if those people won. And this was already very likely.

Let me mention here again very quickly that the reason Dr. Obote was overthrown by the military twice is because he was not a war monger let alone his principle of not mixing the military with national politics. Mr.Obote was a man who believed that differences could be resolved by debate and discussion. That was why he liked the parliamentary debates like his baby. Unlike Museveni who only shows up in parliament when he is coming to push something down the throats of Ugandans. Dr. Obote may have his short- comings as a person like all of us, but using the military to score a
political goal was not his alternative. That was why he could be
overthrown by the military but not defeated in a debate.

Museveni could not win by his rebel activity in Luweero; he owes his success to the Okellos. Actually you could see the involvement of some Baganda in
the Luweero misadventure as a continuation of the plans of some people
in the Lubiri in 1966. But to get back to the attack on Lubiri, and in the light of my points about Amin and co. it was therefore carried out on Amin’s orders. Dr. Obote only deployed the special force to go to,first, have Amin withdraw the army back into the barracks, and then have the special police force calm down the situation and restore order. In that confusion, and since you could not tell who was who, Dr. Obote himself apologetically says that regrettably, chaos ensued and people were killed. Unfortunately, the did had already been done by Amin, and the Kabaka had already fled. In an attempt to redress the unfortunate incident, Dr. Obote then tries to get in touch with the Kabaka while he was still in Kigali to no avail. The Uganda Government did not stop his allowances from being sent to him later wherever he was. The Kabaka eventually settles in London and the Government continues to wire his allowances there. It was after the concern of the British Government that how could Sir Frederick Edward Mutesa II justify his claims of prosecution when he was continuing to receive money from the same Government that allegedly was persecuting him,that the funds were finally stopped.

As for the mutiny you referred to, I have already given you a quick
synopsis about it. Remember that the non-commissioned army personnel
and other armed officers were being paid minimal pay sine they did not
fall anywhere in the Ugandan Civil Service pay structure. Some of them
complained that they should be paid like other civil servants since they were also working for the same government.  Meanwhile, the citizenship of some these people were also under review. So you are talking about so many issues that the new Government at the time had to deal with, and from scratch mark you. They were dealing with everything from scratch, with no previous experience and/or record to deal with. Forget about Museveni coming to power with an elaborate record keeping and civil service procedures.
On the issue of the tribes in Uganda, and their sizes, I think you better revise your history about that. Each of those East African countries have not only huge tribes in themselves, but several diverse peoples that Uganda just looks a baby. Take for example, the Luo of  Kenya who out number the Baganda in Uganda. Then take the Kukuyu who out numbet all the westerners of Uganda put together, if you want take also the Meru of Kenya, which is a small tribe by the way, they are the size of Buganda, live the Masai alone. Go to Tanzania, you will even be more shocked. Uganda at the end has the least population in the whole of East Africa. So saying that tribalism in Uganda in such a difficult thing to deal with is an indication of the exact nature of the problems we are dealing with: absolute ignorance and outright stupidity. Some Baganda, with their uninformed beliefs think exactly
like that to the detriment of the entire respectable Buganda community. There are Baganda out there who are truly Ugandan in their perspective, and they have benefited tremendously from their advanced perspective of the Ugandan experience.

On the issue of how Museveni has handled Buganda, let me say this,
Museveni is a very intelligent student of Dr. Obote’s.  Remember I said earlier how Dr. Obote regretted the Lubiri incident, there is therefore, no way Museveni would go along that road. In any case, there is no body else who is interested in pursuing that line like Amin personally had it. More so, the external factors that were interested in pursuing that line no longer hold anything against anybody in Uganda. Those external factors who had earlier granted Buganda independence in a hurry well knowing that it did not solve the Buganda question knew that that was an issue they would use later to
continue to exert control over Uganda, which indeed they did. Now fourty years latter, and satisfied that they have achieved what they wanted, viz, make Buganda royalty pay for its stubbornness, they are not interested anymore in the issue. Buganda is a non issue to them now, it is history, and this is rude to say the least.

My friend Mr. Semuwembo, some of your points are just meant to justify
the hatred you harbour for Dr. Obote, and they are not going to resolve any of the recurrent problems of Uganda. For instance the issue of the Government not employing Lawyers because all of them were Baganda, or Betty and Kyanjo are not put in jail because Museveni is more whatever than Dr. Obote, **&%$ it; I think all that is mere crap.I mean today as you and I write, the high court is still complaining about the number of judges, we have “safe houses” all over Uganda where Ugandans are being forced to share space with snakes and crocodiles, etc etc, I wonder whether it is still Dr. Obote’s ghost in charge? Traders in Kisseka Market are striking because of Museveni’s policy; did you hear anything like that under Dr. Obote? Tear gas was introduced in Uganda for the first time under Museveni, do Ugandans deserve that when all they are asking for is simply to have the right to protect their God given inalienable rights?

I swear that Kabaka Mutebi is a much better Ugandan to run the Uganda affairs than Museveni, and I do not understand why instead of  Baganda vigorously pursue for his leadership as the President of Uganda so that Buganda can have its way in the Ugandan general context people like you
Semuwemba are wasting time hating Dr. Obote and praising Museveni. If
Buganda cannot solidly define their aspirations, or better yet if the Betty’s and Kyanjo’s who are parliamentarians cannot realize they could use the august house to push for the Buganda agenda, like the westerners have done so under Museveni, they should just shut up and stop wasting the time of their people. All their struggles and political innuendos will be nothing but “ebbiyoya bya enswa”.

Buganda should forget Dr. Obote, who has long departed to join his creator,
and move on with what is here to be done if they are to avoid becoming
irrelevant in the Ugandan context. They are continuously beating the drums whose sound has long died away. No body is listening anymore.Whether Dr. Obote was right or wrong, it is of no consequence now. Let those who are still serious about the secession get down to real work and get the task done. Let those northern folks alone now; you got the seat of leadership; use it now to get what you want. Other rest your case and let Ugandans live in peace. UPC is here, and it is here to stay because it was a movement started by Ugandans for Uganda and in Uganda. Museveni tried all possible means to kill it but UgandaPeople’s Congress has defied all logic of doom Sayers. And Mr.Semuwemba will be shocked at the number of Baganda who support UPCwhen the moment of truth comes in Uganda.

Bwambuga Wa Balongo

Lake Victoria and Fish

Scientists Discover Fish in Act of Evolution in Africa’s Greatest Lake

cichlids-fish-species-evolving-in-lake-victoria In what could be a first in the world, a fish species in the cichlid family has been observed by scientists in the act of splitting into two distinct species in Lake Victoria, Africa’s largest lake and one of the world’s biggest fresh water bodies.

This may be remarkable because what is causing them to diverge are adaptations to their vision as animals and plants try to cope with increased pollution and the effects of climate change. The change is also happening without geographical isolation, which was thought to be a precursor for evolution.

The Pundamilia nyererei is a haplochromine type cichlid native to areas in the Mwanza Gulf region of Lake Victoria. This region consists of many islands where each island region has its own color variant of the fish.

In a report published in the journal Nature, researchers from Tokyo’s Institute of Technology and the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology have observed the cichlid evolve into a new species better adapted in sighting its prey and predator.
But the scientists have also tabled evidence indicating that it is not pollution and over-fishing alone that are responsible for the disappearance of some fish species in Lake Victoria and the evolving of others like the cichlid into new species.
The report summarizes that new species may be born because of vision differences and what fish see at least in one African lake could be the driving force that causes them to evolve into new species.

This may explain the very rapid loss of pundamilia in Lake Victoria over the past 30 years. The study says the eye adaptations have also affected mating patterns.
Researchers looked at two species, conspicuous by their red or blue colours. They determined through lab experiments that certain genetic mutations helped some fish adapt their vision at deeper levels to see the colour red and others in shallower water to recognise shades of blue.

The researchers showed that the eyes have adapted to this difference so that fish that live in deeper water have a pigment in their eyes that is more sensitive to red light, while shallow-water fish were sensitive to blue.

Generally, the evolutionary process of speciation (the formation of new species) occurs when one species is split by a physical distance or barrier, allowing each group to develop different traits. The observations of Lake Victoria’s cichlids provide evidence of an unusual form of evolution known as sympatric speciation, which occurs without the physical separation of a population group.


Comment By Jeniffer .B(New York)

This may not be sympatric speciation but  a possiblitity of deep water dwelling fish coming  to adapt to the surface as result of overfishing the top layer dwelling species. To be able to appreciate this purported evolutionary nyererei species, we need to know all the types of fish, their color, at different water depth habitats as well as their visual color acuties. then we compare,physically,macro and micro -genetics.  One needs to appreciate the enormous diversity of the acquatic /marine animal diversity before they conclude and jump up and down as new discoverers of the new species. I see all kinds of fish in fish tanks everyday, and for L.victoria, one of the world’s youngest lakes, cased in the heart of the poor Africa away from the aggressive and rich scientific researchers of the west,it is hard to accept such discoveries without serious thought. How long did the research last, how many fish species did lake Victoria have say twenty years ago, which types have gone extict and which ones are now new.Which species dwell where , bottom, sides, or surface of the lake? What colors do the different types of fish respond to in their sight. How far do they see, what pigment is giving the fish color, idodine, bromine ,chlorophyl (green, blue or red). Bromine is the commonest marine halide that gives color to aquatic animals, so what has changed here. These are some of the issues we need to know in order to celebrate the new discovery.

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