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Month August 2012

GOMESI AS NATIONAL DRESS: HOW NATIONAL, HOW DRESSY, WHICH NATION?



1/8 Gomesi started being with us in 1940s when it was adapted as the dress for boarding schools in Uganda, starting with Gayaza. Gayaza, as we know was founded by Christian missionaries ‘…to train girls especially the daughters of chiefs in those skills that would make them better wives’.

2/8 Initially, the ladies of the school donned the basic Kiganda ladies’ attire of the day: a sheet of cotton cloth wrapped around the breasts and tied to the waist with a smaller strip of cloth. This left much of the torso exposed and there were often some accidents with that attire especially when the ladies went to work in the school shambas. The missionary tutors found the exposure of the ladies’ torsos and breasts indecent and sought to craft a dress code that was a compromise of their own fashions and the bed sheet-like sash with which the ‘natives’ draped themselves (see attached picture, from Speke’s journal of the ‘discovery’ of the Nile).

3/8 They enlisted the services of a tailor from Gayaza trading centre, an Indian called Fernando Gomes. Mr Gomes was from Goa , an Indian province formally under the Portuguese. The people there like Mr Gomes and the Pintos, Almeidas etc adopted Portuguese names.

4/8 In designing the new Gayaza uniform, Mr Gomes maintained the extravagant sash, very much like the oriental Kimono or West African Obi that was to form a massive skirt. On to this, he stitched a quasi blouse with a square neck with two buttons opening on the left. The new dress was named after him, hence, gomesi. This became the first uniform for all girls in boarding schools (hence ‘boodingi’) and when they went back home for holidays, the traditional authorities were impressed by the new fashion, turning it into the ‘traditional’ dress.

5/8 Mr Gomes was later to be evicted from Gayaza by the Anti-Asian rioters in the late 1940s. A fifth generation Indian Raj Vajrakaya Gomez has recently come up to claim that he is a grandchild of Gomes and wants the ‘bodingi’ to be patented to benefit the family of its designer. His claim can however be doubted because his name, Gomez is Spanish where as the Portuguese version given to the Goans has a letter‘s’.

6/8 The gomesi dress symbolises the ostentation and conspicuous display and extravagancy of feudal society where value for money is an alien concept. From one gomesi, a contemporary designer can make at least 3 size 12 ladies’ dresses….let alone the ‘Kikoyi’, ‘kitambi and ‘Kitambala’ that accompany that courtly attire.

7/8 The gomesi can only be a ‘national dress’ (hopefully for ladies only) if the nation’s life is going to be confined to the slothfulness, lethargy, flamboyance, splendour and vanity of the feudal court. An active, productive, non-parasitic, bi-cycle riding, boda-boda mobile female population cannot manage in that cumbersome garb. A mukiga lady will not wear it, and never wears it, and in much of the West, the less cumbersome two-piece dress and sheet remains popular: it makes it easy to shed off the sheet, which for the gomesi and get on with work, is the entire garb.

8/8 To think that ‘Gomesi’ is a traditional dress is a bit problematic when we do not even have a vernacular name for it and at the very moment when some of us are agitating for a ‘national’ language. Looking at the name Gomes itself, its Portuguese origin makes the naming of the attire for our women even more problematic. Gomes or Gomez in Spanish derives from ‘Guma’ meaning a man or male, or masculine….i.e., Mwami/Ejakait/Ladit. A name that refers to masculinity, for a dress that embodies femininity is a comical contradiction in terms!

Buganda traditional dress:

Lance Corporal (Rtd) Patrick Otto

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Ugandans shoukd read Sir Apollo Kaggwa’s ‘Empisa za Baganda’ and MB Nsimbi’s’ Waggumbulizi’. Baganda were wearing like Gomesi prior to coming Arabs and Europeans. What they lacked sre the sleves or what we call “kabba.”

Other than “kabba) which covers the shoulders, the gomesi or booding, was the traditional dress of Baganda before the coming of Europeans.Asians added on kitambi, kitambaala and kabba. The traditional kitambi and kitambaala were all made of bark cloth.l don;’t think that Gomesi was adopted in fourties. It was much earlier.The gomes as we know it, is now the national dress for Buganda, eastern, northern, Bunyoro and Rwenzoori in Midwestern other than Tooro, Ankole and Kigezi.Then the kanzu covers the entire country.

Ahmed Katerega
Newvision

The Killing of Muslims in Uganda must be challenged


Netters

This kind of complacence where some fool with AK47 can wake up and just kill any Muslim and then go away without even anyone chasing them is joke. It is a joke because no one in Uganda can kill any Muhima or NRM people and then walks away just like that.

Ugandans must challenge these killings in all ways possible. We give power to our tormentors and that is exactly what motivates them. Once these oppressors succeed by killing with impunity for the first time, they find it easy to do it again and again.

Ugandans must challenge these murders in all ways possible. Someone needs to do some home work here. The home work includes studying;

Why these Muslim’s are being killed?
Who benefits from their death?
How are they chosen?
Apart from religion, what else do the victims have in common?
Is there any obvious causal links between NRM’s ideology of power -consolidation,domination plus monopoly and these killings?
What does the killer’s mindset likely to be?
Do the killings appear professional one’s or amateurish?
Is there any signature in these murders?
Did the victims knew each other?

Once we establish the above, we can build up the profile of the killer/s and then be able to point the right finger at them.

I call upon any volunteers to go to Uganda and secretly study these murders. We need to learn from the outcomes of this study and even use them for future purposes.

RICHARD MUKASA
LONDON

I Helped found UCRA in London but it’s not the same organisation anymore


I helped set up UCRA and helped hundreds of Ugandans. I never asked even a single one of them to pay me any money. The Baganda asylum seekers, I tried to help, but some of them were coming up with incredible stories. What could I do if some of these asylum seekers made statements at the immigration detention centres at Heathrow or Gatwick airports, claiming to be from Gulu or Kitgum, without any passports or documents at all? Remember, the UK had wisened up to asylum claims from Uganda, and would subject these claimants to a language and geographical test which many of them failed. The UK immigration service had then employed Ugandan and even British officers who could tell where a person comes from. They would ask them simple questions in Luo, which they would fail to answer. They would ask them very simple questions, like if they said they came from Palabek in Kitgum, which primary school they went to, and they had no clue.

I fought many cases for the Baganda people in their asylum claims. I helped most. All of them will remember the role I played.

I even tried to get Bazilio Okello to come to London to visit his daughter who was dying in a London hospital. My applications and appeals were refused by the British Immigration authorities because they had concluded the presence of Bazilio Okello in the UK was not conducive to the public good and they would not allow him to enter, travel or stay in the terrotory of the UK because he was a public danger.

We claimed legal aid, but we never charged even a single penny to any asylum seeker. I played a lot of roles, from being a legal advisor as well as a counsellor and strategist for the organisation. I was never on the pay role of UCRA. Of the original founders, it is only Damba Nambago who was paid a salary and later on my cousin Omara Awany.

If you check the accounts of UCRA, you will never see my name as having received even a penny in salary or emoluments. UCRA has been investigated so many times by the charity commission and the Inland Revenue. In none of these investigations do you see my name appearing.

The only mistake I made was to leave UCRA too early, when it was not ready to provide the sort of robust and strong leadership I and to some extent Omwony Ojwok provided.

When Omwony Ojwok, Damba Nambago, Steven Irumba and myself left, UCRA collapsed into internicide sectarian and factional fighting. I tried to come back once and chaired the most chaotic AGMs in my entire life.

There was chaos and pandemonium. You could not even hear any one speak. Because UCRA had an open membership, anyone could just collect Ugandans on the streets and bring them to the AGM. This is what the Baganda and Bagisu did. They did not even respect me as a founding member of the organisation. I think this meeting was in 1998.

Since then, I have never attended any meeting of UCRA and its downfall has very little to do with me personally. The inefficiency, corruption, infighting, tribal and sectarian fighting all had nothing to do with me because I was nolonger there, Omwony Ojwok had returned to Uganda, Damba Nambago had moved on to another organisation in Haringey and Steven Irumba had disassociated himself from the organisation.

The only fault I will admit is that we the founders made a mistake by leaving UCRA almost at the same. In me, they lost a strategic leader and their main contact to the funding world. The organisation then had no one who could talk credibly to stakeholders like local authorities, health authorities and government ministers and indeed funding agencies. I will admit to this fault, because when we left UCRA became rudderless and leaderless. No wonder it collapsed.

I am only responsible for not having provided sufficient strategic guidance to UCRA, but I am not responsible for its downfall. I left
UCRA in 1998 and I can not be blamed for what happened thereafter.

UCRA got funding from the Princess Diana Trust through my influence, behind the scenes. One of the Trustees of the Princess Diana Trust is a personal friend of mine who actually served as an Interim Director of my own organisation in Woolwich for almost one year. She oversaw the reconstruction of the organisation and is probably the best CEO my organisation had. And she is Ugandan, born of a musoga mother and a Pakistani father. She always wanted to support the HIV/AIDS programme among Ugandan refugees and asylum seekers in the UK because at the time nearly one Ugandan was dying per week from the killer disease. That is why UCRA got the funding.

I have never met Sarah Nansukusa myself who is one of the people running UCRA at the moment. I wish her luck if she has rescued UCRA. But I hope at some point, when they write a narrative about UCRA, they will remember Mary Dines, a communist who gave UCRA its first desk in a shared office in Islington and gave it its first £100 and introduced the organisation to the political world of the UK.

Mary Dines always had two huge posters in her in her cramped office in Islington, a picture of Pastor Martin-Niemöller, the German anti-fascist who made this historic and famous statement:

First they came for the communists, and I didn’t speak out because I wasn’t a communist.

Then they came for the socialists, and I didn’t speak out because I wasn’t a socialist.

Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn’t speak out because I wasn’t a trade unionist.

Then they came for me, and there was no one left to speak for me.

Then she had one of the radical the Brazilian Archbishop Helder Camara:

“When I give food to the poor, they call me a saint. When I ask why the poor have no food, they call me a communist.”

I hope people like Sarah understand the history of UCRA, that it is British communists who helped set it up. And UCRA played a very crucial role at a time of great suffering when Yoweri Museveni and his militia took over power and set on a course of terrorizing and murdering Ugandans.

I hope Sarah and her colleagues understand why British communists helped set up UCRA.

George O. Pacu-Otto
MEMBER OF UAH IN LONDON

MAFABI TEAM ARGUMENT WOULD PRODUCE A CHILUBA


The Observer’s Pius Muteekani Katunzi puts it mildly when he says that Mafabi should run a clean campaign. The reality of the Mafabi Campaign approach to the FDC leadership is nothing but a blind anti-M7( if not anti-‘westerner’) craze. Ssemujju is on record that the only ‘fault’ he finds in Muntu is the General being born where he was born. Ruranga and Sabiiti are driven by the anti-M7 factor.

What will emerge out of these unprincipled, blind drives is that we may end with a Zambia scenario, where, ‘tired’ of Kaunda, Zambians were hankering for change, ending with the curse that Chiluba was to the country and humanity. Mafabi is a good leader, but let him focus on his strengths, what he can do for Uganda, not merely trashing Muntu simply because the latter was born where he was born!! It even portends worse, because it may end up causing internal rifts in the party, to the detriment of true change in the country.

FDC leaders know their history and themselves better than we ordinary mortals do. You therefore must retreat somewhere, and rethink…you are doing this, not for your party or personal egos, but for Ugandans and humanity, unless we are hoodwinked or you are simply seeking to replace one eating class with another.

Reflect: what prevented Richard Kaijuka, Miria Matembe et al, from coming into mainstream opposition politics? You know the the truth!! Please, if you are genuinely seeking to work for Uganda and Ugandans, then your current approach must change. One strange truth FDC may need to know is that there is a whole generation out there, disillusioned with NRM, but finding no better alternative in FDC et al. This generation needs to be given hope and it’s not tool late.

God Save Uganda

Sandra Birungi
sandexbit@yahoo.com.au

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Sometime ago that is about a year or so,I peddled on this forum something to the effect that there are political organizations/parties whose leadership can come from the greater Eastern part of Uganda and still get elected to State house but many people appear not to remember.Unfortunately FDC is not that Organization I talked about.

Electing Mafabi Nandala as FDC leader will see the demise of FDC faster than it was formed. Many of us are taken up by Mr Mafabi’s paper qualifications as being evidence of his leadership ability.
Unfortunately we do not want to go to the ground to unmask what Mafabi claims are his political achievements.

Like I stated in my rejoinder to Alhajji Semuwemba,apart from the Sironko conclave and Mbale Municipality,all the other constituencies in the Bugisu subregion are represented by NRM.What is even interesting is that much as Mafabi ensured mainly yea sayers are elected on the FDC ticket in Sironko,the presidential poll results speaks differently because Museveni rather Besigye carried the day at the last election.

So,instead of pouring praises on Mafabi,we should be critiquing what type of leadership he will provide and not just wowing his school paper achievements.By using such narrow paradigms to identify good leadership,we shall be taking Ugandans from the frying pan into the real fire itself.

Thus have exhaustive discussions with the residents of Sironko district before giving Mafabi a carte blanche to leadership. Incidentally Mbale Municipality has always voted against the Movement even during the days of the late Wapa(RIP) where he always had to wheel and deal inorder to go back to NRC then later parliament.

Besides,the majority of the so called FDC leaders within the Municipality were yesterdecades UPCs who are now disillusioned by UPC not taking a militaristic stance to NRM hence their finding easy refuge in FDC which outwardly portrays itself as being militant till crumbs are offered to them then they mellow down.
Dr. Owor Kipenji

Woman With TWO Vaginas…Now Offered $1 MILLION to Make Porn Movie


A British woman with TWO vaginas has been offered $1MILLION to appear in a porn film.

Hazel Jones, 27, revealed her rare condition – called known as uterus didelphys – on This Morning this month.

The Lady WIth Two Vaginas…Hazel Jones

And the pretty blonde – who says she likes to visit sex clubs with her husband – has now received the mega-bucks offer from porn supremo Steve Hirsch.

OFFER: The Vivid Entertainment Boss, Steve Jones

The Vivid Entertainment boss wrote to her, making the offer, and praising her as an “extraordinary woman”.

The letter said: “I would like to make you an offer to star in an upcoming Vivid production.

“We would pay you up to $1m (worth £645,000) for your services.”

Hazel is proud of her condition, known as uterus didelphys.

When a girl is born her uterus starts as two tubes, then a septum barrier should break down and one uterus forms.

But in Hazel’s body, the two tubes have made two separate uteruses and two vaginas and two cervixes.

It was in her late teens when Hazel realised that her body was different to her friends’ and had a septum dividing her two uteruses.

Hazel revealed she had to lose her virginity TWICE as she had two hymens – the membrane that surrounds the external vaginal opening – to break.

Hazel’s proud hubby Riki said: “Hazel’s body may be different but it’s not something you notice unless she tells you and I wouldn’t change her for the world.

Hazel appeared on ITV’s This Morning, and Dr Dawn Harper said of her body: “Although it is relatively common to have a septum within the uterus, to actually have two separate uteruses is much rarer – one in a million.”

Doctor Dawn Harper explained: ‘When developing in the womb girls start with two tubes. These fuse and the septum breaks down and forms one uterus.

‘In around one in 3,000 cases the septum stays within the uterus but to actually have two separate uteruses is much rarer.’

Hazel said previously she had found sex very uncomfortable, but now she didn’t suffer any adverse effects. She turned down surgery as it could have left significant scar tissue.
Hazel, pictured at school, had no idea she had the rare condition until she turned 18Hazel, pictured at school, had no idea she had the rare condition until she turned 18

She revealed: ‘When I was younger I thought I was having cystitis and urine infections from a young age when I was tearing the middle septum.’

She added that she once asked a school friend which ‘hole’ she should use for a tampon, but became too embarrassed to continue the conversation after her friend thought she meant she put it up her bottom.

She added: ‘I used to suffer from horrendous cramps and my periods could be very heavy. I now know that my periods were worse because I have two wombs.

‘So if I get pregnant I have to be very aware not to get pregnant on the other side.’

Dr Harper added that Hazel was more likely to have a breached birth as her uteruses were smaller and she was more likely to need a caesarean section. She must also have double smear tests when checking for cervical cancer.

But Hazel is unphased by the prospect.

‘I have a great sex life,’ she said.

President Museveni Promotes His Son Again


His Excellency the President of the Republic of Uganda and Commander In Chief of UPDF has made the following Re-organisation, Appointments and Promotions within UPDF.

Maj Gen Fred Mugisha formerly Commander Field Artillery Division and Force Commander AMISOM is appointed Joint Chief of Staff replacing Maj Gen Robert Rusoke who was appointed Ugandan Ambassador to Juba.

Brig Charles Angina Formerly Chairman of General Court Martial Promoted to Maj Gen and appointed Chief of Staff Land Forces.
The President and Commander in Chief has also decided to re-organise the Special Forces Group (SFG) into Special Forces Command (SFC) which will be Under the Overall Command of Brig Muhoozi Kainerugaba who has been promoted from the rank of Col.

The Special Forces Command will have the first Special Forces Group and Second Special Forces Group as its Primary units.

The re-organisation is designed to enhance efficiency and effectiveness of the Special Forces Command, in the conduct of its operations which among others include VIP protection and Protection of Strategic Installations.

The 1st Special Forces Group to be commanded by Col Sabiiti Mzei who is promoted from the rank of Lt Col.

The 2nd Special Forces Group to be commanded by Maj Don Nabaasa.
We congratulate the officers upon their well deserved promotions and wish them success in their new assignments.

CHRIS MAGEZI
CAPT
FOR DEFENCE / UPDF SPOKESMAN
—————————————————————–
Brig. Muhoozi is the fastest rising military star in the whole of East Africa, and may be in Africa. In just 11 years, he has climbed from cadre, private to Brig. He is very bright and intelligent, otherwise there is no way you can rise rapidly like that. By contrast, one of the air-force helicopter crash victims, Cap. Letti, had served for 25 years and the highest rank he attained was only Captain! There are many more military officers who have served for more than 20 years yet they remain junior officers; well, they must be dense, otherwise how can one account for their inability to rise?

Congratulations, Brig. Muhoozi,your intelligence has been rewarded, hope others will try their best to emulate your good example. But hard they may try however, there is no way they can get your intelligence, it is a trait inherited though somehow exposure to a good learning environment can improve it.

Peter Simon Okurut

Mbabazi accusers acting unreasonably


As the NRM party prepare for their NEC meeting this Tuesday 24th April to discuss issues ranging from poor performance in by-elections to term limits and possibly the retirement of President Museveni, eyes will also focus on the party’s powerful Secretary General and Prime Minister of Uganda Hon. Patrick Amama Mbabazi.

Vultures are circling over the Prime Minister’s head with determination to see him relinquish his position as the party’s Secretary General. They argue that the position of NRM Secretary General is too big and too important to be held by someone holding an equally powerful position of Prime Minister of Uganda and therefore want the PM to give up one of the posts. They attribute the recent party losses in bi-elections to the fact that the party’s Secretary General has no time to run party affairs.

Some of the attacks against the Prime Minister seem to be personal including claims that the Secretary General is hard to get and is virtually inaccessible.

However, the Prime minister has remained defiant and determined to hold all his positions. This is because many believe his accusers seem to have old scores to settle and their arguments cannot stand scrutiny under any measure. They seem to be elements within the NRM party still nursing wounds from the last party conference that elected Amama Mbabazi as Secretary General with a clear margin.

As a silent observer, I agree with the above observation because the Prime Minister’s attackers seem to ignore obvious facts whenever they present reasons to oust Mbabazi as Secretary General of the NRM party. Could it be really true that Mbabazi cannot handle both positions?

The undisputed answerer judging from history and what happens everywhere is that: ‘YES HE CAN’. In fact it is his accusers that are failing him and the party.

Let’s look at the UPC government of 1980’s. They had the late Dr. John Luwuliza Kirunda as Minister of Internal Affairs, MP for Kamuli, and Secretary General of the ruling Uganda People’s Congress and was also the chairman of JIK (Jinja Iganga Kamuli) caucus. Why? Because Dr. Kirunda was very intelligent man and Dr. Obote, the President trusted him.

House speaker Rebecca Kadaga is holding a powerful job as speaker of the House and is still Kamuli Woman MP. Almost all cabinet ministers and ministers of state are holding positions as MP’s for areas where they come from. Aren’t they performing their duties?

The President himself is the Chairman of NRM NEC, Chairman of the NRM Party, Chairman of the National Defence Council, Commander of the armed forces and was at one time also the Minister of Defence. Is there anyone claiming that HE is not, or was not doing his jobs?

Amama Mbabazi falls in the category of the Kirundas, Kadagas and Museveni. He is a well articulated, organized and commanding politician. He is more than capable of chewing gum and walk at the same time. It is best for any country that the most important positions are held by the most competent people, even in multiples.

The way things are at the moment, the NRM party should be grateful they have Mbabazi in those positions. He seems to be among the few they have got in the party capable of breathing with both nostrils unaided and can manage something close to full vision in both eyes. These are rare qualities within the NRM these days.

In plural politics, it is not possible to separate the ruling party from government because it is party members that must be government officials as well. That is the way things are. It is common to find party officials in cabinet positions all over the African Continent. In fact what is abnormal is that in Uganda some people are complaining about it. Do they really understand party politics?

From what I see, it is the detractors that are not doing their jobs and not Amama Mbabazi. The NRM party has a secretariat with 11 directorates. Real work for the party is done by the directorates and not the Secretary General. Hasn’t the SG got a deputy? Hasn’t the party set goals and targets and didn’t the SG oversee this process? Since the SG was elected, he has set the NRM manifesto which swept a whooping 270 MPs to parliament. This same agenda won the NRM party the Presidency with 63% of the popular vote!! At least 60% of local councils in Uganda are under NRM control. What the hell is wrong with these people?

Whoever is pointing fingers at the SG is in effect publicly announcing that they are not doing their jobs properly. They are supposed to report to the SG on progress made on party work and not knock at the SG’s office door accusing him of not working.

It would be nice for Uganda if the NRM could concentrate on issues relating to the country rather than waste time on petty issues like the position of Amama Mbabazi which were decided by the NRM delegates’ conference less than 2 years ago and has so far worked.

The Writer, Michael Senyonjo, is a political Analyst

senyonjo@hotmail.com

The New cabinet line-up is not a real Reshufle and is a luxury Uganda can’t afford- Eric Kashambuzi


1. Eighty cabinet members: ministers (32) and ministers of state (48) is a luxury Uganda can’t afford. Administrative costs are going to eat deep into development funds leaving insufficient resources for development. The faces or names are the same. This is a cabinet that serves political and not development purposes.

2. To be effective and efficient ministers should be assigned to ministries for which they are qualified. Many of the ministers are qualified and experienced but are in wrong ministries, compromising their performance.

3. The Vice President should have been given a full ministry to engage him visibly and reduce size of the cabinet.

4. At a time when the economy is in trouble, an experienced economist in public and private partnership should have been among the top three. Two lawyers and a political economist or political scientist at the top is not the right mix.

5. Planning and economic development should have been split from finance in view of the Five Year National Development Plan (NDP), leaving finance to mobilize resources to fund the Plan. In the present setting planning is a junior partner to finance.

6. It is difficult to reach decisions with such a huge cabinet unless the head of government simply dictates decisions.

7. The way the cabinet is structured, it will be difficult to effect inter-ministerial and intra-ministerial coordination. We live in an interconnected environment and compartmentalization as shown in the cabinet reshuffle is out of fashion.

In a globalized world, countries that have capacity to negotiate and influence deals in national interests will survive. The cabinet line-up doesn’t give that impression right away.


ERIC KASHAMBUZI

NEWYORK

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GOVERNMENT AS AT 15TH AUGUST, 2012

1. PRESIDENT &
COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF – YOWERI KAGUTA
MUSEVENI

2. VICE PRESIDENT – EDWARD SEKANDI

3. Rt. Hon. Prime Minister – AMAMA MBABAZI

4. 1st Deputy Prime Minister &
Minister in-Charge of
East African Affairs – KATEGAYA ERIYA

5. 2nd Deputy Prime Minister &
Minister of Public Service – KAJURA HENRY
MUGANWA

6. 3rd Deputy Prime Minister &
Deputy Leader of Government
Business in Parliament – ALI MOSES

7. Minister of Security – MUKASA MURUULI
WILSON

8. Minister In-charge of
the Presidency – TUMWEBAZE
FRANK

9. Minister for Karamoja – MUSEVENI
JANET KATAAHA

10. Minister in Charge of
General Duties/Office of
the Prime Minister – NASASIRA
MWOONO JOHN

11. Minister of Disaster
Preparedness and
Refugees – MALLINGA
STEPHEN

12. Minister of Information
and National Guidance – BUSINGYE MARY
KAROORO OKURUT

13. Minister of Agriculture,
Animal Industry and
Fisheries – BUCHANAYANDI
TRESS

14. Minister of Defence – KIYONGA CRISPUS

15. Minister of Education
and Sports – ALUPO JESSICA
ROSE EPEL

16. Minister of Energy and
Minerals – MULONI IRENE

17. Minister of Finance and
Economic Planning – KIWANUKA MARIA

18. Minister of Works and
Transport – BYANDALA
ABRAHAM JAMES

19. Minister of Justice – KAHINDA OTAFIIRE
& Constitutional Affairs

20. Attorney General – NYOMBI PETER

21. Minister of Gender, Labour
& Social affairs – KABWEGYERE
TARSIS

22. Minister of Trade,
Industry & Cooperatives – KYAMBADDE
AMELIA ANNE

23. Minister of Water and
Environment – KAMUNTU
EPHRAIM

24. Minister of Lands,
Housing and Urban
Development – MIGEREKO DAUDI

25. Minister of Health – ONDOA
CHRISTINE

26. Minister of Foreign
Affairs – KUTESA
KAHAMBA SAM

27. Minister of Information
& Communications
Technology – RUGUNDA
RUHAKANA

28. Minister of Local
Government – MWESIGE ADOLF

29. Minister without
Portfolio in-charge of
Political Mobilization – TODWONG
RICHARD

30. Government Chief Whip – KASULE JUSTINE
LUMUMBA

31. Minister of Tourism
Wildlife and Antiquities – MARIA
MUTAGAMBA

32. Minister of Internal Affairs – ONEK HILARY

MINISTERS OF STATE:

Office of the President:

1. Minister of State for
Economic Monitoring – BANYENZAKI
HENRY

2. Minister of State for
Ethics and Integrity – LOKODO SIMON

Office of the Vice President:

3. Minister of State
Vice President’s Office – NYANZI VINCENT

Office of the Prime Minister:

4. Minister of State for
Relief and Disaster
Preparedness – ECWERU MUSA
FRANCIS

5. Minister of State for
Northern Uganda – AMUGE OTENGO
REBECCA

6. Minister of State for
Karamoja – OUNDO NEKESA
BARBARA

7. Minister of State
for Luwero Triangle – NAMAYANJA
NSEREKO ROSE

8. Minister of State for
Teso Affairs – AMONGIN APORU
CHRISTINE HELLEN

9. Minister of State for
Bunyoro Affairs – KIIZA ERNEST

Ministry of Foreign Affairs:

10. Minister of State for
International Affairs – ORYEM OKELLO

11. Minister of State for
Regional Affairs – KIYINGI ASUMAN

Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries

12. Minister of State for
Agriculture – NYIIRA
ZERUBABEL
MIJUMBI

13. Minister of State for
Fisheries – NANKABIRWA
SENTAMU RUTH

14. Minister of State for Animal
Industry – RWAMIRAMA
K. BRIGHT

Ministry of Education and Sports

15. Minister of State for Sports – BAKABULINDI
CHARLES

16. Minister of State for Primary
Education – KAMANDA
BATARINGAYA

17. Minister of State for
Higher Education – MUYINGO JOHN
CHRYSOSTOM

Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development:

18. Minister of State for Energy – D’UJANGA SIMON

19. Minister of State for Minerals – LOKERIS AIMAT
PETER

Ministry of Finance, Planning & Economic Development:

20. Minister of State for Finance
(General) – JACAN OMACH
FRED MANDIR

21. Minister of State for Planning – KASAIJA MATIA

22. Minister of State for
Investment – AJEDRA GABRIEL
GADISON ARIDRU

23. Minister of State for
Privatization – KAJARA ASTON
PETERSON

24. Minister of State for Micro-
Finance – AMALI OKAO
CAROLINE

Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development:

25. Minister of State for Gender
and Culture – ISANGA LUKIA
NAKADAMA

26. Minister of State for Youth and
Children Affairs – KIBUULE RONALD

27. Minister of State for Labour,
Employment and Industrial
Relations – RUKUTANA
MWESIGWA

28. Minister of State for Elderly
and Disability: – MADADA
SULAIMAN

Ministry of Health:

29. Minister of State for
Health (General) – KATAIKE
SARAH NDOBOLI

30. Minister of State for
Primary Health Care – OPENDI OCHIENG
SARAH

Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development:

31. Minister of State for
Housing – ENGOLA SAM

32. Minister of State for
Urban Development – NAJJEMBA
ROSEMARY

33. Minister of State for
Lands – NANTABA
AIDAH

Ministry of Trade and Industry:

34. Minister of State for
Trade – WAKIKOONA DAVID

35. Minister of State for
Industry – MUTENDE
SHINYABULO JAMES

Ministry of Tourism, Wildlife and Antiquities:

36. Minister of State for
Tourism – AKIROR AGNES

Ministry of Water and Environment:

37. Minister of State for Water – ATUKU BIGOMBE
BETTY

38. Minister of State for
Environment – NABUGERA
MUNAABA FLAVIA

Ministry of Works and Transport:

39. Minister of State for
Transport – CHEBROT
STEPHEN CHEMOIKO

40. Minister of State for
Works – BYABAGAMBI
JOHN

Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs

41. Deputy Attorney General – RUHINDI FRED

Ministry of Defence

42. Minister of State for
Defence – ODONGO JEJE

Ministry of Internal Affairs

43. Minister of State for
Internal Affairs – BABA JAMES

Ministry of ICT

44. Minister of State for
Communication (ICT) – NYOMBI TEMBO

Ministry of Local Government

45. Minister of State for
Local Government – AADROA ALEX
ONZIMA

Ministry of Public Service

46. Minister of State for
Public Service – SSEZI PRISCA
MBAGUTA

Ministry of East African Affairs

47. Minister of State for
East African Affairs – SHEM BAGAINE

48. Dr. Nduhuura Richard – AMBASSADOR TO
THE UN, NEW YORK

AMAJO MARY PRINCIPAL PRIVATE SECRETARY TO
THE PRESIDENT

SIGNED this …………………..day of August, in the Year of our Lord Two Thousand Twelve.

Yoweri Kaguta Museveni
PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF UGANDA

Omar Kalinge’s Statement on the Police Search for Weapens in his car on Katonga Road, Lower Nakasero


MY OFFICIAL STATEMENT ON THE POLICE SEARCH FOR WEAPONS THAT WAS MOUNTED ON MY CAR ON KATONGA ROAD, LOWER NAKASERO, KAMPALA, YESTERDAY AUGUST 14TH 2012, 7.46 PM – 9.00 PM.

Kampala August 15, 2012

Omar Dawood Kalinge-Nnyago

Cell: +256 703 851 851 Email: omarkalinge@gmail.com

On Tuesday August 14th 2012, at 7.46 pm, as I drove from an Iftar Dinner (Breaking the fast) for Muslims at the Inter Party Cooperation (IPC) offices at 6, Katonga Road, Lower Nakasero, Kampala, where one of my offices is situated, I was intercepted by a fleet of five Police Patrols vehicles and three unmarked civilian cars with armed un-uniformed occupants. They were under the command of one officer Ruhweza, whom I suppose is the DPC at Kampala Central Police Station. He knows me very well and I know him too. There was also another yellow taxi occupied by suspicious ‘security personnel’ in plain clothes.

In the car, a double cabin Toyota Hilux pickup was part of my family. At the back of the car prayer mats that had been used during the Iftar dinner and Evening Prayer, (Maghrib) and empty pails that had carried the juice for the guests.

Ruhweza asked me to follow him to the Central Police Station, CPS, to have my car searched for illegal weapons. I asked him whether he had the authority to do so. He replied that he was a police officer in uniform who was carrying out lawful orders. I inquired about the un-uniformed armed men that were surrounding me. He said I needed not to worry about them. Some of the faces of the armed men in plain clothes were well known to me from the kiboko squad days. By this time a crowd was growing around us.

Sensing that this could be an illegal operation, in fact a possible attempt on my life, I, as the Current Chair of the Inter Party Organisation for Dialogue, IPOD, and member of the IPOD Security Committee, called Inspector General of Police, Lt. Gen Kale Kayihura to ask whether the search had been ordered by him. [IPOD is a dialogue platform with a permanent secretariat for the six political parties represented in Parliament. The parties are Conservative Party, Democratic Party, Forum for Democratic Change, Justice Forum (JEEMA, to which I am the Secretary General/National Coordinator), National Resistance Movement and Uganda Peoples Congress. IPOD is supported by the Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy, NIMD].

Kayihura’s phone was answered by his assistant who asked me what the matter was, because the IGP was in a meeting. I explained to the assistant that I had been intercepted by officer Ruhweza and a large number of policemen in uniform and armed men in civilian clothes. He told me that the IGP would call me back shortly. Since yesterday he has not. I am signing off this written statement at 5.15pm, today Wednesday 15th August, 2012, after giving the Inspector General of Police sufficient benefit of the doubt.

After failing to get Kale Kayihura directly, although I had initially accepted to drive with Ruhweza to the CPS, I changed my mind. All the time the recent shootings of innocent civilians in Kampala were flashing in my short memory. I knew I would be the next item on the news. In the meantime, one zealous police officer had drawn a gun at me, without sufficient cause, but was restrained by Officer Ruhweza, an action I must record appreciate.

After a long hustle, we agreed that the vehicle be searched from where we were blocked, at the end of Katonga Road, towards Fairway Hotel. In the meantime, a crowd was growing and traffic had come to a standstill along Katonga Road. The un-uniformed armed men kept on threatening my family which had by now been ordered out of the vehicle despite my protestation. I objected to simultaneous search of the vehicle, as past experience has shown that it is possible for a corrupt police officer to plant evidence if keen attention is not paid. We locked the Cabin of the car to isolate it.

The search began with the open pickup end – the prayer mats and food utensils were thrown disrespectfully on the tarmac and trampled upon by the errant police officers. After the search, the police ordered my family to load the items. My wife refused and asked my children – my eldest daughter, Fatmah Omar (nearly 16), and two of my sons (twin brothers), Ahmad Qassim Omar (nearly 15), Bashir Omar Omar (nearly 15) and dependants – Abdul Wahab (10) and Qassim Masembe (7) not to do so.

A police officer threatened to beat her up and a scuffle ensued – she was physically assaulted but another sober officer restrained the errant officer who was asked to step aside “… and leave the lady alone”. The police officers reloaded the items.

The second sector that was searched was the cabin itself. The third and last sector that was checked was the bonnet (where the engine is housed). All the searches yielded nothing. Without apology, or any sense of remorse, officer Ruhweza commanded his troops to drive off. On my way home I was trailed by several security cars, a yellow taxi (cab) and several men on boda bodas (motorcycles). Another suspicious grey Totoya Premio car with tinted windscreens and disfigured number plates was found parked in-front of my house and has kept passing infront of my gate at regular intervals since yesterday. My family is traumatized and my daughter, Fatmah Omar in particular, has been very affected by this nasty experience. I am making this statement for four reasons.

1. The local and international public ought to know exactly what happened to me and part of my large family, when a search for weapons that yielded nothing was done on my car and the issues surrounding it.

2. I think my life and freedom and the welfare of my family is in danger, since this is the first time in a very long time that a public citizen’s car, who has never been involved in any security breach, has been searched for “weapons”. (Not even Dr. Kizza Besigye’s car has ever been searched for weapons or even Mathias Mpuuga’s the leader of an outlawed activist group, A4C). What was the source of the information that officer Ruhweza acted upon, and what was the motive of the search that the Inspector General of Police IGP, Kale Kayihura has not been able to own up? Incidentally, officer Ruhweza in a telephone conversation with JEEMA President, Counsel Asuman Basalirwa, has denied ever having searched my car!. Police spokesperson Ibn Senkumbi, on the other hand had told a journalist that indeed there was a search that was conducted on my car, but that no arrests were made as nothing was found. There is something fishy here.

3. I believe there the Police intended to intimidate me, my family and the persons who attended the Iftar Dinner that was held yesterday. Iftar dinners have been organized in Uganda before, by different individuals and organisations. In fact, on Monday, August 13th 2012, (the day before this ugly incident) some members of my own family attended an Iftar Dinner at State House, Entebbe, the President’s residence. Nobody searched any one’s car after that dinner. In my car at the time of the search yesterday, there were other invitations extended to me and my spouse to an Iftar Dinner by the American Embassy due tomorrow, August 16, 2012 at a private residence. What is so special about this Iftar Party that was held yesterday at my offices, that would warrant the search of my car for weapons?

4. To demand an official explanation from the Inspector General of Police who knows me very well I suppose, and who had earlier in our meetings at IPOD, provided me with the telephone number I called him on, to which call he has not responded until now.

# Omar Dawood Kalinge-Nnyago

Kampala

Busoga sub-region is worse-off today than before. What has gone wrong?


1.0 Introduction

In his recent article, Busoga’s Political Opportunities and Misfortunes from 1962-2012, Dr. Frank Nabwiso ends by helplessly asking the audience what has gone wrong! This expository paper attempts to explore some of the fundamental issues troubling Busoga region as well as Uganda. The author also examines the demise of public institutions in Uganda, the decay of public service delivery, the changing landscape and role of politics from public service delivery to a typical job and viable business. Additionally, it also predicts when NRM party will leave power, accounts for diminishing political opposition force, points out the cultural causes of stability of Busoga region and justifiably argues out the case of ‘the Basoga’ being the most peaceful world tribe. Finally, this treatise calls for recognition of non-political heros and also considers the possibility of an Eastern State in the near future as a way forward.

2.0 The illusionary independence of public institutions

The socio-economic situation in Uganda has undeniably become harder than before. It is now the law of the jungle in operation in every sphere of life-survival for the fittest! We cannot negate the fact that a significant proportion of Ugandans have lost confidence in nearly all public institutions. A good number of people use their positions to extract money from the public for survival. Public service delivery has deteriorated below satisfactory levels. Service beyond the self is now a myth!

The supposed independence of the current institutions like the Uganda Electoral commission, the Uganda Police Force and the Judiciary among others is highly disputable. It has become almost useless to run to the custodians of justice- the Courts of law for help. The Judiciary and Parliament are merely extensions of the Executive Arm of the Autocratic Government. Since both the Judiciary and electoral officials are undoubtedly public employees of the regime in power, it requires them exceptional courage to accuse the finger that feeds them. Management experts would sum it as insubordination. For they have to protect the interests as well as dance to the tunes of their masters- the Appointing Authority. Indeed, Justice has now become the advantage of those who are wealthy and politically stronger! The accuser is lucky to have her legal case be handled by a sober judge or magistrate. Frankly speaking, I have equally fallen suit!

3.0 Unabated deterioration of public service delivery in Uganda

It is normal for medical staff to demand for bribes from the already poor patients.! Drugs are stolen from some of the public health centers and transferred to private clinics for private gain. It is likely that more lives have been lost rather than saved under the rule of NRM than the regimes of fallen Presidents Obote and Amin combined! I am yet to complete a study on this and the results will definitely be made public. Most Local Governments staffs report for duty very late and leave anytime. A teacher has to be bribed to teach young children. Quality education which includes special coaching is a reserve for mainly those who can afford-the rich. In some UPE schools, children are grouped and taught according to the income levels of their parents-a system that reinforces socio-class inequalities! The posting site of a traffic officer is dependent on the size of loot they bring to the officer in charge. Apparently, the existing law doesn’t in anyway protect drivers. Insurance companies are at liberty to deny and delay victims of third party insurance their entitlements. Worse still, securing a recommendation requires an assurance from the person seeking help that they will either vote or has in the past voted such a Political Leader including even some legislators.

Gradually, new districts are mushrooming –with the chief driving factor being creation of new openings for political clowns to acquire jobs and or their sons and daughters to access the public payroll. For they need also to keep the third majority in Parliament to rubberstamp supplementary budgets and protect personal interests of the Head of the Executive. Whereas the relationship between the state and its citizens is supposed to be akin to that of a mother and her children, most of public service systems are broken down. Is it not a right for citizens to demand for restoration of political sanity and may be a break from this unabated inhuman contempt?

The level of political connections determines who finally grabs a public service job! Applicants from poor backgrounds with sometimes better qualifications have to struggle to secure loans for bribing the well-connected for Government jobs. Unfortunately, very few of them have succeeded! Even when they do, this implies that a person from a poor household will take several years servicing the debt and the unbearable interest rates, and during that time, she will not be able to help her household members. These scenarios have perpetuated poverty! The same requirements are applicable to the coveted job of the ‘Kyabazinga of Busoga’. Perhaps, if the ‘Kyabazinga’ Seat had rescinded to the poor chief of Luka County as early as 1993 may be Busoga region would currently be devoid of the internal succession wrangles

4.0 Politics as either a job or business

Politics rather than being a platform for public service is presently viewed as a quick source of wealth accumulation! What a false precedence set for the young generation. Recently politics in Uganda has been exceedingly commercialized! At every election time, we are thrown into tears as we have to witness increasingly more funeral services of true democracy. If the lax consciences of most NRM politicians were replaced beginning with the top most one and then interrogated on whether they genuinely won last year’s election, I doubt if their responses would be in the affirmative. The least they can say is to decline to comment! What they are left with is Position and ceremonial rather than authentic power!

Future leaders in Uganda are likely to comprise of well-to-do people (possibly business tycoons) who perceive politics as a lucrative profit making venture. Therefore, public service delivery may not improve as expected in the short-run. There is likely to be no room for enactment and enforcement of pro-poor policies. Unless aggressive civic education programs are designed, coordinated and implemented early enough, the pathetic situation is not likely to change in the short-run .

5.0 When will NRM relinquish power?

The question of the actual time of departure of NRM from power is not an easy one. In fact, even the co-founder as well as current head of NRM is not aware. However, he appears determined never to give up! In my view, the actual time will be exactly when the sympathy and tolerance of the common man evaporates. Because of cowardice shaped by weak civil society sector, torture, political indoctrination, extreme poverty, indirectly controlled mass media and the ugly political history, they continue to yield to the directives and erroneous actions of these forces. In addition, the neighborliness that existed during the pre-colonial era has been sent into disarray. Shockingly, many Ugandans have survived and developed a formidable resilience from the artificially fashioned social-economic hardships. To sum up, the time is just not yet ripe for the oppressed to cease listening to the empty promises of the unauthentic voices and forces. At that momentous time, we shall witness as well as crown an influx of young political martyrs. For many will die for their families and the blessed nation-the pearl of Africa. As nationalists nevertheless, we have an implicit obligation to prevent the looming and likely bloodshed, if the regime fails to relinquish the usurped power peacefully.

6.0 Why opposition leaders cross the holy political boundaries?

Being part of a political party with no soul is considerably supported rather than condoned across many societal circles. The poor people are encouraged by some circles to ‘obey the bad governments in power such that the good ones may find them alive’. Meanwhile, others plainly add, ‘if you can’t beat them, then you join them’. The basic question here that we need to be clear about is: Is it best to influence good governance from within or from without? There are so many Ugandans who have accepted admission to work with the wretched regime. No sooner than later, they are branded as either ‘political rebels’ or ‘traitors’. The driving factors of dissidence have in most cases been non-material needs; everybody requires prestige and social recognition and some individuals may achieve this through compromisingly crossing the holy political boundaries. But wait a minute! Except occupying the political positions, how many of them have actually been able to effect ‘from within’ the urgently needed change? In the end, the argument narrows down to survival rather than service delivery! Moral degeneration has not spared African opposition leaders who are supposed to set the pace.

On the other hand, the concept of political pluralism is relatively new to majority Africans and perhaps not well understood by even the elites! As a result, it is increasingly becoming more socially and legally acceptable for the political opposition members to willfully but occasionally be coerced into being ‘used like condoms’ against their communities in exchange for political and technical appointments, posh cars, houses and so forth. For all the 25 years, the regime has survived on the strategies of divide and rule as well as seduction of non- party members. By fighting to retain President Museveni in Power, this established machinery is indirectly assured of protection of the ill-gotten wealth from attack by the growing irritated, betrayed and resentful Ugandans. A clique of a few selfish individuals disguised as ‘opinion leaders’, ‘sons of historicals’ and ‘elders’ presently do influence as well as make major decisions affecting Busoga community. They live, survive and thrive on treachery and intimidation. Evidently, many of the accomplices have grown extremely rich in a very short period. It is unfortunate that they have forgotten so fast and learnt nothing from Uganda’s political history. Do they want also to end their lives miserably too?

In most of the cases, with the exception a few who fled the country, past political thieves left all the loot behind which eventually turned out to be a source of conflicts in their families and subsequent disintegration. For such property is soiled with bad blood and curses! Before God, their days are numbered. They should use the free opportunity of Ramadan which is nearly ending to repent and reverse their wrong actions. At this post-modern era, where human rights activists are never a sleep, there is no need for the tit for tat game. Poor Ugandans are more than willing to forgive them.

7.0 The Basoga are generally a peaceful people

The oppressive NRM Government owes a debt of justice to the nice and good willed people of Busoga region. We shall live to recall its crimes of brutality and willful neglect to our deprived communities. For even when we forgive them, it will be thorny to repress the ugly past- the ravages will persist onto the future. Like the secluded Jews, the Basoga urgently need to teach their children the predicament of their tribe and region.

Wars, family tensions and aggression were uncommon in the history of Busoga. The Basoga are socially and culturally orientated never to be aggressive but forgiving and receptive. The increasing cases of crime particularly defilement, domestic violence and hostility in Busoga region are largely attributed to the recent rising levels of biting poverty, persistent restlessness and disenfranchisement of the people. Revenge and violence are absolutely new phenomena in the Soga culture.

8.0 Need for recognition of fallen and serving heroes in the non-public sector

In contrast to many long serving politicians, there are a few people (out of politics) who should be recognized for having caused or made a considerable contribution to the development processes in Busoga and Uganda as a whole. Many of these heroes have left but their good works endure; while others unnoticingly continue to invest their precious time, energy and private resources into life changing situations in our community at the expense of personal pursuits.
It is of paramount importance for everyone to take the narrow path and play an active role in the liberation processes right at the family level. We urgently need to be part of the movement of many golden hearted, sympathetic, tolerant, resilient and hospitable people battling for the desired but better change. Tomorrow’s political landscape in Uganda will be shaped by our current actions.

I’m sure we will be tomorrow where our thoughts take us! We need to get out of ourselves and make a contribution to others. The words of Benson Anderson Stanley in 1904, are still relevant today. He said, “he has achieved success who has lived well, laughed often and loved much, who has enjoyed the trust of pure men, the respect of intelligent men and the love of little children, who has filled his niche and accomplished his task ;who has left the world better than she found it…who has never lacked appreciation of earth’s beauty or failed to express it, who has always looked for the best in others and given them the best he had, whose life was an inspiration, whose memory a benediction.”

9.0 The journey towards a future Eastern Federal State

The fact that Busoga sub-region is worse-off today than it was a half a century ago-is a key source of our despair. The study by Okurut et al (2002) concluded that based on the national poverty line, Northern Uganda has been found to be the poorest area in the country; it has the largest depth of poverty and the worst inequality. However, ‘Using region-specific poverty lines, Eastern region has the worst indicators of poverty . The same paper affirms Western region as the richest region in Uganda.

With this glaring evidence, the option of secession from the present Republic of Uganda instantly pops up. May be we are walking in the wrong direction! But could this be the best choice and the right time to make a complete a u-turn? In other words, is it viable to disband the existing partnership of Busoga province with the Central Government? I’m not certain! However, cumulative evidence is gradually unfolding regarding the increased effectiveness and efficiency of medium but manageable administrative units rather than larger ones.

There is also a thunderous cry for a savior (not a political opportunist) to take lead in the liberation of the once past broad-shouldered region from the artificially shaped social and psychological catastrophes.

In whatever case, it is my hope and dream that the true liberator will emerge not anywhere else but from the East. Wise people always originated from the direction where the Sun rises. For it is its turn to ascend to the presidential throne and be in the driver’s seat. This new regime will restate adherence to the true values of humanity and principles of democracy. Also, this anticipated government will deal with the arrogance of the wealthy towards the deprived and cause economic and social justice for which we are more than willing to give up our lives. It will be a government conceived, designed and managed by the people themselves to address their larger development concerns.

What next? Our immediate noble actions should not be to replace the failed State now but to establish a people centered system that aims to mold and influence Ugandans including the hard and stony hearted NRM cadres and well-known thieves of public resources into citizens who are charismatic and kind hearted towards their fellow brothers and sisters. Acting for the right intentions in whatever case is a natural, universal and divine call for everyone. In this way, our seemingly powerful, attractive and superior service delivery system will remain in the hearts of people and be passed on to the next generations. We are committed to sowing seeds and virtues of humanity- togetherness, community, hard work, generosity, resilience, transparency, inner strengths, integrity and love. By the time of death of the oppressive and dictatorial regime, there will some ruins of the foundation, on which to build a new State.


Matthias Ngobi Miti,
Email: matthiasmiti@yahoo.com
Former Aspirant for Member of Parliament, Butembe County, Jinja district

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