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Month November 2013

If we go by Hon. Lady Justice Bamugemereire’s evaluation of evidence for the establishment of a primafacie case, then we will open a can of worms


Folks,
You, who are bashing the Honourable Justice Catherine Bamugemereire, have you read the report in total? Do you know what ‘prima facie case’ means? She has not adjudged that Mr. Erias Lukwago is guilty; neither has she held that he be removed from office- she executed her duties with admirable integrity and in an expeditious manner. Politicians should stop bashing the bench- when it rules in their favor, all of a sudden it has admirable qualities. Against them, it is rotten, political, etc. man up! Hire good lawyers for instance, not political actors camouflaging as such.

Our public should also be pro active; the report has been on line since it was released. Their press should have published it in full- though World Cup qualifiers seem to occupy most pages; tellingly.

Every person who is convicted or acquitted by the Courts of Judicature in Uganda, goes through a process where the prosecution has to prove there is on the ‘face of it'(prima facie) bearing in mind the evidence on the file, a case to answer. After that initial step, the person is subjected to a full trial to determine his innocence or guilt. A finding of a prima facie case does not mean one is guilty. I hope that helps.

Justice is a virtue. So is truth. If you look at the evidence tabled before the Justice, I wonder what she should have arrived at other than her conclusion that on the face of it, the Lord Mayor had indeed abused his office and not carried out the duties he was meant to carry out competently. The truth therefore undid Mr Lukwago. People should take the time to read the report before they render an opinion.

In the report she duly clarified on the issue some of you have brought up on UAH and in her opinion the Act phrases the offenses in criminal terminology. The proceedings are of a civil nature. The purpose of the tribunal was to investigate and not prosecute the Lord Mayor. However, I daresay, there are endless possibilities open to Lukwago and his ilk to seek redress even after the impeachment. Cue, Theodore Ssekikubo and Niwagaba’s appeal process.

if there is one thing the tribunal emphasised then it is the positivist school of law idea that, ‘the law is what it is not what it ought to be.” the failure of LORD MAYOR as found by the tribunal could be attributed to several factors not of his own making but then the result was that he failed. And that is what the tribunal pointed out. Now I don’t think it wise to say that because the president or any other person has failed in their duties and are still standing, lukwago should not be brought to account. As selective as it seems, it is important that he was asked to account.

Mai

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‘prema facie’ means on the face of it. For example, if you see a pregnant woman you cannot ask her if she is pregnant yet the evidence is there. So please ‘prema facie’ means the evidence that you can see with your open eyes. Please revisit your law books again.

Justice is a virtue, and it is possessed in the senses of every human being. You and I know that provisions in the law for removal from office are reserved for the rarest occasions. for example, the same provisions appear in the constitution for removal of a sitting presidency, inability to perform the functions of the office, incompetence, abuse of office, etc. If you go by Hon. Lady Justice Catherine’s evaluation of evidence for the establishment of a primafacie case, then you will open a can of worms, unless of course such provisions were only written to be read to the members of opposition. It is easy to blame the opposition because it doesn’t matter how careful they trade, they are bound to be found on the wrong side of the law.

There were no circumstances warranting invoking the said provisions, if you read the Watergate scandal, you will find that almost in all cases which warrant removal from office, criminal prosecution must follow, if indeed lukwago had abused his office, the judge would have included a recommendation to forward his file to the DPP for investigation and prosecution. Equally so, since the allegations connote criminal elements, she should never have evaluated the evidence on an ordinary balance of probabilities.

For example, on incompetence, the evidence that was adduced was failure to convene meetings, but there were conflicting accounts of meetings convened and boycotted.

The common law position is that once the facts disclose criminal tendencies, the burden of proof must be slightly higher than a mere balance of probabilities. This is well stated in the law textbook called “learning the law: Prof. Glaniville william”. See also sexual offences, proof of paternity, and it’s the same reason used in election petitions.

Almost all the grounds that the Councillor relied on ought to have been particularized, for example, they should have pleaded the particulars of facts constituting abuse of office in the petition and not wait for the tribunal to fish them in the body of evidence. I also think it was wrong for the tribunal to constitute itself into a Trier of fact as opposed to a tribunal of inquiry into the conduct of the office of the mayor and that’s where the theory of a primafacie case becomes defeatist. You do not establish a primafacie case after listening to the evidence of the accused. It must come before. The point is that if before choosing to hear the lukwagos, her lordship had subjected the evidence and accusations of the councillors to the test of a primafacie case, she would have found no case to answer.

The government (read minister of trade) is incompetent and should be blamed for the tax fiasco. The government conceded in parliament that a review of the tax regime (in particular to UTODA or taxi) needed urgent review. The minister even promised parliament that she is going to suspend the SI “immediately” but she did not. Taxes ones paid to government are not refundable. A tax payer can have that credited to his account but that’s only if every tax payer has an account. In the circumstances, the politician in Lord Mayor told him some action is needed which the minister has reneged on. Legally one can fault Lord Mayor for not adhering to the letter of the law. But taxes are the lynch pin of a political economy. Courts (or tribunals) should be aware of the politics and economy and that’s why the Supreme Court held against Kiza Besigye petition in 2001. Never should courts look at issues in purely legal lenses otherwise a single ruling can trigger unthinkable chaos.

I like how lawyers know how to hide simple issues in layers and layers of long-winding-statements and old Latin! Who can’t see what is happening??? Why now? Has the top echelon suddenly developed “feelings” for the people of the city after watching for 2 decades Individuals who by any standards are more incompetent, negligent and/or ignorant than the (soon to be booted) Lord Mayor! Let’s keep this as political as it should be, arguing the law in a plain-to-see will cause us to think “who cares about the law after-all!!!

I therefore disagree with the analogy of ‘prima facie’ case in criminal trials obtaining in your arguments. The process after the prima facie case in the tribunal finding will entitle the KCCA to constitute to begin impeachment process. That process does not require any law or evidence as opposed to criminal trials. The councillors will vote basing on whims (perhaps political) and not law or evidence. Anyway, I think the spirit in which the tribunal was appointed was so bad and does not set a good precedent for our country. The KCCA has never been constituted and the minister had never bothered to have it fully constituted. Why now???? What was so hard with that two years running? Now, the last four councillors they have elected are all from western Uganda as if other regions don’t produce professionals. As such, I cannot make any value criticism of the tribunal of fact or law headed by Justice Bamugemereire because of its inception.

I do not think that the mayor is incompetent, he is educated, knows the law and meets all the requirements for the office but most importantly he was elected by the people. He never abused office; did not embezzle any money and did nothing outside his mandate. I even have a feeling that the report was not authored by the judge; it contradicts itself in several material particulars. But anyway who cares, we have new councillors none of whom resides in Kampala and all westerners!

H.OGWAPITI

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THE LAW IS ON LUKWAGO’S SIDE!


Prima facie means “on the face of it”. It is a cursory or initial judgement that is reasonable to make without having carried out a detailed examination. For eg, Ofwono Opondo is seen entering Karanga’s house in the middle of the day and a few minutes later is seen running away, covered in blood. Karanga is then discovered stabbed to death the next day. Now this is prima facie evidence that may lead to the conclusion that Opondo is the murderer of Karanga: The fact that he is seen entering the house, the fact that he spent a few minutes there, and the fact that he is seen covered in blood while running away.

But if you subject this evidence to more detailed examination or inquiry, you may well reach a totally different conclusion, for eg self-defence, or that Opondo intervened in a fight between Karanga and some other assailant, or that Opondo was trying to take the rap or cover up for his sister, Karanga’s wife, who had earlier phoned him and confessed she had stabbed her husband to death. There are so many other possibilities, including one that the man may have been dead already by the time Opondo stabbed him, so technically no offence of murder would have been committed.

I think some people are attempting to argue that there was a “prima facie” case against Lukwago ; there was some evidence produced to show that Lukwago did not convene meetings or sign off minutes, but the crucial issues here are 1- Whether the evidence presented against Lukwago was sufficient to establish a prima facie case of incompetence, or abuse of office; and 2, Whether Lukwago sufficiently rebutted the prima facie evidence on a balance of probabilities. Certainly, reading from the judgement, it is clear that the judge made an error because the prosecutor in the case did not adduce evidence that would support all of the elements of the offences with which Mr Lukwago is charged.

On the contrary, I think in rebuttal, Mr Lukwago did adduce several instances of deliberate obstruction by KCCA officials, making it difficult or impossible for him to perform his duties. There were doubts raised about Lukwago’s competence and fiduciary responsibilities or lack thereof, but not sufficient, on a balance of probabilities, to make a definitive and affirmative verdict of guilt.

George Okello

Hon Justice Amos Twinomujuni is especially remembered in the trial of the trial of Bob Astles


twino2I am so sorry to learn about the death of Amos Twinomujuni. I knew him well, both personally and professionally. Twino, as he was known, was a lawyer with outstanding intellect and acute forensic mind. He is the best prosecutor I have ever seen in action in Uganda. He raised the bar of criminal prosecution to a level that would have graced any of the criminal courts of the UK.

I first got to know Twino when I was a student at the Law Development Centre and I went to do my legal practice internship at the High Court as a clerk to the late Justice Ouma. I was the only LDC student working at the High Court at that time and that gave me a unique opportunity to do research for Justice Ouma and as well as Chief Justice Manyindo, both of whom were trial judges in all the major criminal trials brought against the officials of the fallen dictatorship of Idi Amin who were arrested after his overthrow and charged with offenses such as murder, kidnapping, abduction, torture, robbery, rapes, among others. These included Nasur, Bob Astles, Obura and others. These were seminal criminal cases that tested the newly re-constituted Uganda’s commitment to the rule of law.twino

There was great interest in Uganda and even internationally to see all these high ranking members of the Amin regime put on trial, and significantly, Twino, who was the Deputy Director of Public Prosecutions, personally took on these cases himself. This in itself was rare, because hardly would one see the Deputy DPP personally prosecuting cases.

I watched in absolute awe and admiration, especially the trial of Bob Astles from beginning to end. The tussles that Twino had with the late George Ayigihugu, who was the main defence counsel in a majority of these cases, were very educative to me as a law student. In the Astles case, he was represented by two English QCs. In fact, I think the standard of both the prosecution and the defence in these post-Amin murder trials was so high that they have never again been replicated in Uganda. Never again in Uganda can you witness a lawyer at the top of his brief. Never again can you see a lawyer make a closing speech lasting three days that it took Twino to close his case against Bob Astles.

Bob Astles was acquitted against the odds by Justice Manyindo, because there was no direct evidence linking him to the murders ordered by Idi Amin (the same likelihood in the trials of Kenyatta and Ruto at the ICC). I learnt a lot about criminal prosecutions from Twino, just by watching and observing him, a master at work, displaying a phenomenal capacity to absorb humongous amounts of information and even the tiniest of data. Twino would recall these all with ease.

Later on, I was to work under Twino when I joined the DPP’s office as State Attorney, reporting directly to him. Again there, his commitment to the administration of criminal justice was palpable and despite all of the challenges of reforming the department after the ravages of the Amin years, he still took on the huge challenges with energy and determination. We had a very huge back-log of cases to prosecute, some had been lying on files for years, and many of these we tried toclear, with some success.

Later, after I left the Department, I heard he had been seconded to the LDC to replace the long-serving, Mr Philip Iya, as Director and subsequently was appointed as a judge.

In him, Uganda has lost a great lawyer and scholar, a person who served the legal profession with distinction in various roles, first as public prosecutor, then as academician and professional tutor of lawyers and finally as a judge.

I wish his family well at this difficult time. Those of us who knew him will always remember him as a dedicated professional who was true to his calling.

George Okello
UAH member in London

Of what value are 30 plus million people if you cannot turn them into a market?


We have a population of 30 plus million people, of what value are they if you cannot turn them into a market and then manufacture shirts to sell in the US ? We should create a company in Uganda to manufacture commodities that we can sell locally, and we do not have to raise the income of the people to a huge income but be able to sell at minimum 25 cents Canadian of worth to every Ugandan every month, you have a monthly income of 7.5 million dollars as an income. That is three Canadian dollars a year per Ugandan, that is all I am looking for. Now I am comming to Uganda for I have some thing sensible to do.

Few years ago as we were talking with one of my friends here, we decided to tap into Uganda , we looked at its weather and we loved it we looked at the clean water supply we looked at the population and we decided to go for it. We flew to Uganda to investigate what we were going to do, and the best option we saw was to start a poultry farm. We came home and wrote a proposal to a Canadian bank to finance the investment we wanted to do in Uganda . All numbers and projections looked good, for we wanted a farm that had the ability to manufacture its own materials. The bank approved a very massive loan to be given to us in phases. So because the loan was huge we wanted them to deliver it depending on how progressing was the investment. And they were fine with that.A first phase of money was released by the bank and we were ready to go.

But here was the problem.When you get a loan from the bank you have put your name on the doted line and a credit is a very important thing in this society, so you must be ready to repay the bank or you will be doomed for life. We left the money into the bank and we flew to Uganda again. We needed a secondary study just to make sure this thing is not going to bury us. If I am to fly out of Canada to come and stay in Uganda for an investment, we had to have a farm to produce a minimum of 50,000 eggs a day. That gives us a minimum of 350,000 eggs a week or 1.4 million eggs a month. And the question became very basic, can Ugandans consume 1.4 million eggs a month? And that is only an egg for a million and a half of the population of 30 million, a month. The answer is no they cannot do so for they are too poor to buy it. Most of those 30 million people have kids that get an egg as a medication for she is coughing but not for a break fast. Yes we can get the money yes we can get institutions to help us yes we can fly in even our own veterinary doctor who will come with all his medication yes we can buy our own land and build our own farm yes we can fly in the damn chicks, I can get a cargo 747 to fly in the chicks at a phone call. But what do you do with a million eggs a month? And yet when you look at that project it is very enticing for I can increase the eggs production and use some of them to a different by product so in essence I am looking at expanding from eggs production to another final product, but all these expansions need a market. And I was not willing to use Uganda for its cheap labor but sell the eggs out of Uganda no I might as well become white and abuse the population, this is a diet Ugandans need why not produce it and sell it to them?

We flew out of Uganda and crawled back to the bank manager apologized to her for her time we so wasted and begged her to retract the money from our accounts without a penalty.

AGOA was started in Uganda to manufacture clothes and sell them to North America . China Korea and India are manufacturing shirts and selling them in Toronto long sleeves at 5 dollars Canadian, and at that price you get a shirt with a tie. How the hell will an AGOA shirt sell in Toronto ? I love pants of Alex by Daniel, why? I have no clue but that is what I wear and they are now sold at 35 dollars a piece if you are buying many you can get them at even 25 dollars. A bed sheet of 800 threads you can get at 25 dollars. Just know where you are going to buy and you will laugh. How will AGOA produce clothes to sell in North America when North American stores and factories are closing? It is as silly a proposal as thinking that you can send out beans to Ghana and get out blankets, no you cannot do a barter trade in Uganda for Uganda government per say does not have huge farms to produce those beans and you cannot make international deals based on Mwami Mulindwa might grow a sack today and two sacks next season. Ugandans do not grow food to get foreign exchange they grow it to get local money, and when Uganda government started to collect the beans from people, Bateso changed from growing beans to millet, you see they can use millet to make Ajono and get cash. Think people and critically !!!

This is where you and I must beg the members of UAH of today to understand some very basic things, those 30 million people need an income, we must create jobs jobs jobs jobs jobs and with those jobs a Ugandan can live in Amuru but be able to eat an egg, for that will mean I can come to Uganda set up a poultry farm in Kiwoko, but get several trailers to supply the Gulu location which will sell the egg to the Ugandan in Amuru. Now when I set up the farm in Kiwoko that is when I will need the road of Kiwoko Luwero bitumized for I will be paying the taxes to maintain it.

We need to start to think critically !!

EDWARD MULINDWA
Toronto

Uganda does not have a functioning Economic System


Uganda has very few organisations that are perfectly run as cooperate bodies. Some offices today, are just small village meeting places; a fridge here, plates and teapots there.Let us look at the basic parameters.

1.Uganda has about 15-17 million people in the working age. These are people who can be in gainful employment if the opportunities were there.

2.Majority workers today do not get their salaries and wages regularly – most are paid after three – six month against the labour laws. MPs, ministers and the repressive arm of the state get theirs regularly. And Money is stolen from state house not once but twice!?? Typical.

3.98 percent of Ugandans do not have a medical insurance

4.100% of school going children do not get launch at school after NRM scraped school food! How this impacts on agriculture production and children potential to learn, it is only NRM that knows.

5.Out of the working population – very few people have a job contract against the Labour Laws.

6.Very few workers get their salaries into their bank accounts and why this has not been enforced is still a mystery.

7.Umeme has about 600’000 registered users out of the approximate population of 16 million adult workers. This is very depressing YET Uganda has National Housing Construction Corporation located and working in Kampala read Uganda.

8.How many people are connected with a landline to Uganda Telecom in their homes? This figure must be very lower than Umeme figure. UTL was donated to Gaddafi by NRM YET the Uganda police, health facilities, and many schools have no single public phone access!

7.The public sector worker has a figure of less than 500’000 (half million) people which is 0.03 of the working population that is minus the aged and disabled adults.

8.NSSF has a registered number slightly above 450’000 account holders of workers which is less than one million. Why the number is not higher than the 500’000 (half million) public workers since NSSF has registered private companies workers is still a BIG QUESTION MARK?

You will need to correlate the above data with data from URA of PAYE – and then see a debacle. NRM has frustrated every effort to get Ugandans ID cards –

The above simply confirms a primitive economic structure that doesn’t know who a salaried work is. If you do not understand the above in fiscal terms then you are doomed. There is much more to this, as Uganda in East and Central African has the largest immigrant population. These add to the Uganda working class.

The above data implies without having at least 15 million people registered anywhere as workers, the government of Uganda can’t provide insurance, medicare, proper housing facilities, social protection to the largest portion of its population! Then African politicians laugh at Europeans – thinking Europe is collapsing when Africans are oblivious of toilet paper making technology!

Now NRM is starting student loan scheme – this will thoroughly be abused since there is no centralised education register linked to birth and death register, banks and national ID data bank. The corresponding local council is a dead end with rampant corruption. Now bringing in private tertiary institutions in the business of profit maximisations – and it becomes even more interesting.

Although I would not propose a European or an American socio-economic system since our environment is quite different I would suggest that the government gets a clear functional economic system.

This will link all Uganda’s working people to an insurance and health care policy. This too implies a Uganda will have a permanent house with amenities e.g. water, electricity, internet, radio and television link, virtual medicare facility over the internet, fridge, and a computer set or screen linked to a virtual server.

Wishful thinking – what about AK47 and fighter planes

DANIEL BWANIKA
UAH member in Luwero

UGANDA IS TOO IMPORTANT TO KENYA


‘The economic relationship between Kenya and Uganda is symbiotic. Many of us tend to portray it as Kenyan philanthropy. Uganda is a centre piece in the lifeline of Kenya’s economy, the Great Lakes hinterland along the Northern Corridor. Kenya’s industry was erected to serve that market. It survives on servicing that market. Any attempt by Kenya to cut itself off from that market would be suicidal. As you know, Uganda is the quarter guard to and a bottle neck in Kenya’s access to that market, covering Uganda herself, Rwanda, Burundi, Eastern DRC and Southern Sudan. However, for suppliers and consumers, vulnerability is mutual. To think otherwise, like some of you do, is to hope that you can clap with one hand.

But also remember what we used to be taught in economic geography…I think Primary Seven, Term II week 3: “It is as easy for a hinterland country to change its entrepots as it is impossible for a coastal country to change its hinterland.” Kenya is as equally vulnerable as that.

Kenya has no lake worth writing home about. Migingo is only useful as a beachhead for fishing in the deeper waters of Southern Bugiri and Mukono, bordering with Tanzania. That is where they get all the fish from.The portion of Nalubaale that belongs to Kenya is too shallow for meaningful fishing and this is what YK Museveni observed, when he emphasized the point of the waters to the West of the islands. If the brothers in Kenya insist on strict policing of the borders then they will take Migingo, but it will be useless for them, especially if Uganda reciprocates by saying: keep out! Kenyan fishefolk can only fish in Bugiri.

Note that, the bit of Nalubale that belongs to Kenya is too muddy for fish to thrive. From the bit of military geography of that area that I remember, there are are about 12 rivers that drain into Kenya victoria, depositing a heavy load of soil from the highlands West of the Rift Valley. Fish can not live there…except may be a bit of Nile Perch. When Nile Perch (which thrives in shallower waters) was introduced in the lake smaller species like tilapia took cover in the deeper waters where NP could not venture (hence the unscientific myth that NP had finished tilapia….the latter run into exile deep in Bugiri and Mukono).

The Migingo hysteria is no different from the balaalo issue, and the small peasants in the crop farming areas: being stuck in small timer production. Actually YK Museveni has already looked beyond the hysteria of the rocky acre and identified the centre of gravity of the little quarrel: the deep waters of Bugiri and Mukono. He is laughing at those who think the rocky acre is the decisive factor.

My interest in telling Uganda to get their hands off that rock is first it belongs to Kenya a fact that we want to ignore, and secondly, it does not really matter for some one that is determined to harvest fish from that pond called Nalubale. Uganda, go trawler.


Lance Corporal (Rtd) Otto Patrick

what is best way to nurture democratization ideals in Uganda?


Folks:Why did Hon Erias Lukwago and Mr Joseph Balikudembe become so famous in Uganda? Was it not because they feasted on poor legal advise offered by Mr Khiddu Makubuya and Hon Sekandi? That is what Ofwono Opondo-Opondo P’odel was saying in 2009 and i agree with him: no cautious Ugandan can take the legal advice of the two gentlemen as the truth. They have been wrong not once, twice but so many times. Would you go to the Constitutional Court again on the advice of the two gentlemen? The two have made more money for the folks at Kampala Associates, one wonders whether that is what they want here: to cost taxpayer billions defending the obvious. The question in my mind is this: was Hon. Khiddu Makubuya there to enrich the coffers of Kampala Associates at public expense? Mr Ofwono Opondo put it right: the people dispensing legal advice haze zero credibility.

The problem would be solved if YKM had a lawyer of some standing as his legal counsel instead of the mediocre fresh graduates from LDC with zero experience, he seems to rely on.

DP, UPC and FDC are different ideologically. Some of the parties only want to topple NRMO but then do what? I am brutally honest: I would not support such a combined outfit. No chance in a million period.

But what is it Ugandans want? is to to get YKM out? Is it to defeat NRMo? Or to build nurture democracy? If it is the later what is the best way to do it? Is it through a two-party system? Then let the Uganda elite come out opnely and say Ugandan is better off with tow parties. But which parties? Do we go the Nigerian way and outlaw existing political parties and that means all parties, yap NRMO included and start over over?

The opposition in Uganda must find their voice. At the moment they look like Republicans with no coherent plan yet. That does not mean they can not come up with one, they can.I prefer politics fought on ideas and grand plans to the politics of kitanda. Let the opposition at least dream.

Mr Onyango-Obbo warned young people against Mr. Timothy Kalyegira’s nonsense that has been running in the Monitor. Many of us thought the chap had quit to concentrate his juju/seer stuff but somehow he made a come back to write about Amin and what happened after his overthrow in 1979. I was tempted to ask: how old was Mr. Kalyegira in 1979? We know he was in Entebbe.

And yes, Mr Onyango-Obbo is right on. I sense how the sections of the opposition get excited with stuff such as that by Mr Kalyegira. If that is what they are hoping to excite the country in their favour, God save Uganda.

I have argued elsewhere that Uganda’s problem is that the country does not have a person of gravitas in the position as was the case in Kenya where they had Mr Kibaki, the late Jaramogi Oginga, the late Wamalwa Kijana, Mr Matiba, Mr Rubia and another layer of young Turks, Mr Muite, Mr Raila, Mr Kiraitu Murungi, Martha Njoka (nee Karua) and outspoken lawyers like Dr Gibson Kamau Kuria, Dr John Khaminwa etc. We really do not have any opposition figure with gravitas. I guess that is why Mr Kalyegira is apparently a big hitter!

But let me tell Mr Onyango-Obbo to stop the conspiracy against Ugandan readers. Any promising talent at the Monitor is either moved to Nairobi or Dar. Ugandan readers too deserve good journalists. I bet you the stuff Mr Kalyegira is writing would NEVER EVER make it in the Daily Nation. The Standard yes, but not the Daily nation. So why the conspiracy against Ugandans readers? What did they do to deserve such mediocrity in their Newspapers?

The question and is a hefty one is this: what is best way to nurture democratization ideals in Uganda?”

WBK

Are African attitudes towards sex to blame for homosexuality and the state of Mulago Hosp?


The British built that Hospital for you. After 50 years you should have built at least another 10 hospitals of that size. The colonialists started the foundation of that hospital in 1955 and it was completed in 1962. It is a pathetic situation!!.

The British built that Hospital for you. After 50 years you should have built at least another 10 hospitals of that size. The colonialists started the foundation of that hospital in 1955 and it was completed in 1962. It is a pathetic situation!!.

Are African attitudes towards sex fueling homosexuality in Uganda? Put differently, would liberal attitudes as is the case in the West where girls and boys are encouraged to have boyfriends and girlfriends openly at an early age curb the homosexual desire in Ugandan teenagers?

We are trying to think the how part: how can Uganda curb homosexuality apparently in single sex schools? I am asking you to reflect and weigh in on this sensitive issue. Is African culture which forces teenagers to pretend that they do not have sexual feelings unwittingly doing more to encourage homosexuality among Ugandan youth? Would encouraging teenagers-at say 16-to freely bring home their boyfriends and girlfriends be the solution to homosexual desires?

In other words, is the desire for women respectability harming Ugandan youth? Is homosexuality the unintended consequences of harsh African cultures that suppress sexual feelings? By respectability I mean the double standards in African cultures where young men can go out and date for ‘experience’, but the girls are not allowed to date/have sex outside marriage. How can Ugandan society save its children from homosexuality?

Not long ago, I was at a conference hosted by medical anthropologists and there was consensus that HIV/AIDS in Africa would not be that bad had African cultures been good at talking about sex. They cited a community in Southern Africa-Kungu people -who are very free with sexuality and sex education. Homosexuality is unheard of. Why? Because the teenagers can always quench their sexual desires the heterosexual way. Teenage pregnancies are very low. Why? Because the girls and boys respect nature and take precaution. HIV/AIDS is very low? Why? Because teenager have been taught about its dangers. I tied foreign aid partly to blame for homosexuality?

This is heavy lifting but we cannot pretend any more. How can African cultures reverse the menace? Let me say something about the accusations that single sex schools are to blame. The implication is that students in mixed schools are getting it. Not sure about that. I was in a single sex boarding school for over 10 years, but never heard any of that stuff. Sure there was bullying but to make the leap that bullying leads to homosexuality is wrong.

Secondly, Stop blaming Mulago and ask some tough questions. How many of you would feel comfortable in a house meant for 4 or 6 to suddenly be forced to occupy 20 people? That is what Mulago is going through. Mulago is doing too much. It is doing too much because Ugandans are producing too much and refusing to take personal responsibility. Yap. Yes that is what you get when you put quantity or faaa/bure above quantity. Folks at the rate Ugandans are producing; it will take a lot of money to just keep pace.

This business of cost then benefits later must be checked. Ugandans must stop doing things in reverse. If they don’t, trouble and yes, more misery awaits them. Mulago should be decongested but at the rate Ugandans are producing, Kampala may need 4 or even more district hospitals.

WBK

PARENTING LESSONS FROM ONE UAH MEMBER


I doubt whether there is such thing as an ideal parent. We just do our best. God gives you the children and gives YOU the wisdom to know how to raise them. Just listen to that Holly Spirit/Ghost and/or how your parents did it.

Whatever you disapproved of better not repeat. We all do our best, that is all. Parenting gets even harder when we have to work two three jobs to make a living and barely have time to spend with the young ones. Somehow we do it.You are a great parent and your children are blessed to have YOU. Remember we have many Ugandan kids with no parents? Just keep on doing your best and change whatever you do not want. Our children learn from us and we also learn things from them. Let us all live, laugh and love.

During my time of raising children, I established order in the home. For example, when the children came from school, first expectation was a snack, then school homework.The adult present was in charge to answer all questions and help out. After that they could go and play. When it came to dinner time, they ate what I provided. I did not provide what they loved, but what was healthy and they had to eat it. Then they had turns in dishes.

We had a dishwasher that I never used because I wanted the children to learn responsibility.We all sat in a meeting and determined how to hold the one who does not do what they are supposed to do responsible.I accepted input, but my word was final.One of the things we did is to talk to someone who does something wrong the first time. No yelling, talking and listening to what the one defiant had for a reason to fail performing. Second time was also a verbal warning. The Third one was KIBOKO, and I kept it where it was visible; so if anyone was thinking of defying they looked at its size and re-thought and did what they had to do.

Amazingly, I never had to use it on them, because they did what they had to do when they had to do it. I did not even have to warn once. Three children did what they had to do.We had family meetings to listen to each other and figure out how to improve our lives, because times change and needs change.By opening up the possibility of using Kiboko, I never had to use it.But If I had to use it;I would explain why I am using it to tell the child why they were going to be beaten.

You also do not slap the face etc, you beat the buttocks. At least that is how it was in my family. Slapping can result in head injury and look like abuse. Also a parent never yells at a child you talk to them respectfully with dignity because you got the power. Yelling belittles a parent. It is always advisable to call the child sit in a place and talk about what is bothering you the parents about his/her behavior. It is also not right or proper for husband and wife to be yelling at each other especially in front of children. Parent discussions are supposed to be in a private place with dignity not demeaning attitude and children should never hear parents fight. Those children will model what you the parents do. To this day I do not know how to yell because my parents never allowed that or did it.

Have a great and productive new week! Happy Parenting!

Assumpta Mary Kintu.
USA

DICTATORS USED TO BE FOR THE BENEFIT OF PEOPLE BEFORE THE MUSEVENIS REDEFINED THE WORD


I think anybody who goes through high school anywhere in any era without knowing about dictatorship, democracy, socialism or communism, is but an educated fool.It’s unlikely that such a person will comprehend weighty political issues of the world later in life, even with the benefit of further education.

I would not call the education I got under President Amin as a privileged education either.However, there was a good deal of activism that went concurrently with Amin’s heavy-handed manner of leadership. Schools were free to teach and debate on whatever they so wished.

I and a classmate, Herbert Masozera, represented Mbale SS at inter-district debating competition at Ngora SS where the topic was, “Which system is better: Democracy or Dictatorship?” And this was in 1978.

At Mbale SS, we got to read and vigorously discuss Animal Farm, A Modest Proposal, The Wealth of Nations, Things Fall Apart, No Longer At Ease, and Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird. These tomes were not subject matters that you expect “a repressive” regime like Amin’s to allow to be taught in schools.

Contrast that with Kenya under Moi, where university students and lecturers were routinely arrested and jailed for reading such “subversive” materials like The Green Book, by Muammar Gadaffi, or The Prince by Machiavelli!

I knew for example that Amin was not the first dictator in history.If some of our friends on UAH had read about Julius Ceasar, They would have known that the term Dictator was a title, and the first receipent of it was Julius Ceasar. In its original form, ‘Dictator’ innocently meant one who conguered all for the benefit of the people without fear of one’s own mortality. It was only later that the term took unpleasant meaning and misuse.

That debate about what was preferable between dictatorship and democracy was not specifically about the situation in Uganda at the time. It was a discourse on the different political systems in history and their effect on people.

In fact, the debate followed a term-long syllabus on The Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire, the French Revolution and the Bolshevik Revolution. Amin’s presence on the national scene was a coincidence.

But again, maybe I went to a special high school. Or I had really radical teachers. Whatever the case, I benefited a great deal of that school and my teachers.’

Edward Pojim.

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