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Day August 21, 2019

Museveni blocked me for an international job as he did with Otunu

FDC hails gov’t for supporting Byanyima’s UNAids appointment

By George Okello In London via the UAH forum
You see here the FDC’s achilles’s heel gets exposed once again with the appointment of Winnie Byanyima as Executive Director of UNAIDS. You must be supported by your own government in order to be appointed to such a position. Conversely, your government can block your appointment if it does not want you as it constantly blocked Olara Otunu’s apointment to Deputy Secretary General to the extent of forcing him to take the citizenship of the Ivory Coast.

Obviously Kayibanda has no problem with his former girlfriend being appointed to this position, but what about the FDC?It is the same problem the FDC had with the appointment of Anne Mugisha to the UN regional office in Somalia. To get the support of the Ugandan government, she had to kneel down before Kayibanda and promise to withdraw completely from politics, a promise she has kept up to today.

So what promise has the FDC got from kayibanda for supporting the appointment of Byanyima to this top position? Winnie was on her way out of Oxfam anyway following the horrible sex abuse carried out under her watch by Oxfam staff on very vulnerable girls in poor countries, so this post has come at the right time for her.

With apointments like this, many people do not see any difference between NRA and FDC. The difference is very cosmetic as the two feed on each other and need each other to survive.

Uganda needs a completely new start.How is backing Byanyima decent when Kayibanda has blocked every single person from the north who has been appointed to an international job requiring home country endorsement?

Olara Otunnu comes to mind. Kayibanda blocked Otunnu time and again from when he wanted to stand as UN Secretary general and when he was appointed Deputy Secretary general. Poor Otunnu was forced to look for a friendly African country to sponsor him, and that’s how he ended up with the Ivory Coast citizenship.

And what about me? I was appointed to a legal post in the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, then based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. I had then returned from the Philippines, and at a meeting of Amnesty International, I met the then Director of the Commission who came to talk to us about the Commission, which was still new. Later on at dinner, he said he was very impressed by my overall grasp of African human rights issues, and my energy and enthusiasm, so he asked me to go and work for him in Addis Ababa, a request I accepted.
I was then asked to make a formal application for the role and was invited for an interview in Addis Ababa. This was a lengthy selection process that involved a written exam, presentations, face to face interview and then a final interview with the Directors. They selected two of us, out of 9 candidates who had competed for the roles.

But to my surprise, I was then told the job required home country approval. I knew at that point, all my effort was wasted. I went to the Ugandan Addis embassy and spoke to some officials there, who assured me they would deal with the matter there at the embassy level, and not pass it on to the Foreign Affairs ministry. I then left and returned to London, and expected the whole process to be completed in about 2 weeks.

After 3 weeks, I got a telephone call from the Addis embassy, telling me that my request for country endorsement had to be passed to the Foreign Affairs Ministry as the embassy had no authority to deal with it, and that somebody would be in contact with me.
In the meantime, the commission was pressing me, wanting to know when I would sort out the endorsement process so that I could start.
After 6 weeks, I finally got a message, from the Uganda embassy in London, telling me I would not be endorsed by the government of Uganda because of the work I had done for international human rights organisations, which was very critical of the Ugandan government, and of Kayibanda Museveni in particular.

Eventually I withdrew my application, even though the Director still wanted me to join them, but at a lower level as an Assistant Legal Officer, which did not require any country endorsement. But I turned it down.

The issue is not about qualifications. Every candidate considered for such a job is highly qualified. Olara Otunnu was for eg highly qualified and met all the required job specifications to be appointed Secretary General or Deputy Secretary General of the UN.

The issue is that for some international jobs such as at the UN, AU, International Court of Justice, World Bank etc, you cannot be appointed to some positions, unless you are endorsed by your own government. Qualifications and experience are required, but home country endorsement is essential and is a road block that disqualifies many competent candidates.

In my case, it wasn’t even a question of being qualified, because I had already done and passed a written test, a video presentation and two oral interviews in a selection process lasting one week.

Looking back, I was not really surprised that I was blocked by kayibanda Rubatisirwa. The African Commission for Human Rights was new and one of its key tasks was to investigate human rights abuses committed by African governments. It was created by the OAU as it was known at the time, but was not universally welcomed by many African governments, including Uganda.

The Commission had problems from the the very beginning with many governments refusing to cooperate with its investigations. Kayibanda Rubatisirwa knew I was going to push for an investigation of Uganda, and especially as the Genocide in Acholi was raging at the time. The last thing kayibanda Rubatisirwa wanted was an investigation by a Commission of the OAU, and so he blocked my appointment.

Actually, the Commission became ineffective as the years went by, it was starved of funds, and moved its HQ from Addis Ababa to Banjul, Gambia to save costs. The Director who appointed me left in frustration after a while.

Later on much of the work of the Commission was taken over by the International Criminal Court, or ICC, which had a higher profile, stronger mandate, and stronger investigatory powers. This time to protect the integrity of the court, governments have no role in the appointment of judges of the court.

But even with these added power and authority, you can see the ICC still faces a huge problem, most of which stemming from reluctance of African governments to cooperate with its work and opposition and hostility from the USA. .

So in the case of Byanyima, she would not have got the UN AIDS job without the nod of kayibanda Rubatisirwa. Only Byanyima and the Fdc know the pound of flesh kayibanda Rubatisirwa demanded for his goodwill. Anybody who has known the modus operandi of the pot bellied Rwandan knows he does not give free meals.

UAH’s Abbey Semuwemba, this is the tribalistic Rwandan thug you have the temerity to call “decent”. Give me a break.

I think FDC is making a huge blunder by making these sorts of backroom deals with kayibanda. It will come to haunt them one day, and they will live to regret it. Winnie Byanyima is scum, and I see no reason why FDC should sacrifice its credibility for her. She is a millstone around Besigye’s neck, and he can never be elected president with Winnie Byanyima holding his waist. Take it or leave, but that’s the fact.What I am saying here is that this UNAIDS appointment has the hallmarks of a case of ‘scratch my back and I will scratch yours’.

NRM is going to leave Uganda in real trouble

By Daniel Bwanika via the UAH forum

UTL story is not about to end until Uganda parliament re-nationalises the telecom sector . This too requires to have a vibrant innovative telecommunication engineering sector. The market is already there and is growing.I now understand that in the USA there regions that have no access to the internet, for example, since they lack a telephone network!

UTL can undercut prices and provide: Data, Information, Education,Entertainment, Internet, Voice, Image , Health networks at far higherspeeds than relay satellite network.It is therefore players in the above sectors on whose behalf Anite can be eliminated.

Who has the ability to eavesdrop or tap wire conversations in Uganda if not Uganda security agencies?

This article was written in the 90s just before Uganda Posts and Telecommunication was disbanded. I remember we discussed the issue of the telecommunication on ugnet then J. Nkuuhe, Muntu and others.

This article was picked by a certain Nigerian professor and published in the New African Magazine.

National Telecoms – as Societal Organised System Networks

If we asked today how many outpatients and inpatients were registered
in one health care centre AND HOSPITALS in the country where can such
that data be got?

If we were to ask how many children were admitted to primary education
and how many have since fallen out of the system where can that data

For matter of planning, if we asked how many people are located in
every district town centre and thus pays tax where is the information
and how can it be got?

If the state were to provide the provisions of electricity, water,
telephony how can we get the information about housing facilities in
every district town or municipal centre?

If we wanted to plan for meat export for example- where could we be
able to get an approximate cattle population and what we can consume
at a sustainable replacement rate?

Today we have more than 10 university campus how possible can one
easily communicates on research and academic issues – let us say solve
a complexes mathematical question where a knowledgeable person in
these matters is located at Kumi university campus?

Local district administrative points have a communication networks how
then is the information sent to the centre for planning or how does
the centre monitor what is taking place at local centres?

National telecommunication infrastructures are absolute necessities
for developmental purposes. If one was to reference any one world
organisations statistical data about Uganda one will be surprised by
the way erroneous figures are printed and then said to be
representative of national data banks.

I have written before that the problems, which Africa faces, are not
economic, as economic prophets’ claims but they are rather

There is total lack of communications infrastructures, which will link
up all rural areas, mediating multiethnic societies and cultures,
networking for a common social action and hence generating harmonious
economic and business activities metamorphosing into national
socio-economic structures.

Claims that mobile phone and the privatisation of the
telecommunication sector, will lead to HARMONISING THE SHORT FALLS in
socio-economic organisation, does not hold, will be proved wrong and
will fail big time since the state organising structure have got no
control over their activities. Private sectors are there to maximise
profits but not build social networks therefore private networks are
confined geographically.

The problem with African telecoms is EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT or listed on
to the stock exchange, in order to attain productivity and efficiency
but not fragmentation and competition. If nation states want
competition in the sector, then National telecommunication companies
should be decentralised to regional, district or provincial level with
very clear objective and expert management for long term increases in
region productivity and efficiency with the centre. (see below)

There is no African Country today, which does not have a university/
ies, tertiary or vocational institutes and primary or secondary
schools network. On top of that, there is an extensive healthy network
system, public administration networks and trade on regional, district
or provincial levels, national to national level though not thoroughly
FUNCTIONAL AND OPERATIONAL in the most efficient and socially
productive manner. This is what are called economic problems rather

These are the structures,- social structures, which can generate and
support the National Telecoms economically in Africa, hence creating
the economy, which befits and can sustain a modern telecom
infrastructure. Advanced nations have reached the optimal level of
efficiency and productivity levels within these sectors, a reason why
they are looking for high-speed technologies to capture distance and
time outside their boundaries.

I can argue that as several national state societies are struggling to
form nations, these social structures are still rudimentary
structurally and required to stimulate internal growth. Present Africa
social structures are only generating traditional localised views-
hindering liberation of local knowledge exchange. In a sense, I can
argue that Africa has no society to society, group to group,
administrative to administrative COMMUNICATION AND ORGANISATION on a
national level. Where there is lack of such infrastructure,
communication is blocked or slow hence the problems socially becomes
even more complex, generating three other major problems Africans are
struggling with which are as follows; –

1. Lack of efficient management of multiethnic society or cultural
business /economies,
2. Timing
3. Monitoring and Control of both the private and public
socio-economic actions.

These are the main social problems, which manifests or simply
interpreted as economic problems- they are simply social
organisational problems, which must be solved first through systematic
structural social organisation. They can’t be solved through
privatisation since privatisation is hinged on individual desire to
maximise individual efforts but not national or society goal. In fact
such structure generates business and bureaucratic nepotism which is
so rampant in Africa because of kin and ethnic affiliations- thus
socially and economically retrogressive. Therefore, social structures
on a national level in Africa can be characterised as inferior
structures, which do not cause a nation state functionally

The solution is to use information communications infrastructure and
national telecoms as an organisational infrastructure to decentralise
administrative organs and hence competent on regional revels.

Besides the negative heterogeneous African social structures, those
structures are equally positive in the present state of socio-economic
state, with rapid mobility of labour and high communications
technological and proliferation into society- therefore Africa must
utilise these social structures optimally to create MODERN
telecommunications infrastructure.

By virtual of there existence, these social system networks, I can
actually ascertain that Africa is blessed – therefore let the
activities of the national state be decentralised to meet local
demands and views which later will evolve onto national level
economically and technologically. Usually, the economy is basically
founded on three principal demands namely: FOOD, SHELTER AND HEALTHY
which are factor components of the primary ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE on
which the TELECOM INDUSTRY in African should be FOUNDED.

Food is the agricultural sector and the predominant activity on the
African continent. Microwave climatic monitoring and dissemination of
information, for agricultural production does generate it is own
economy, which can sustain its own telecom networking industry. Since
agriculture is a necessity, it does also cause quick adaptability to
the information technological structures.

Shelter does compose housing, general construction sector and hygienic
sectors, which in social terms, calls for national organisational
structures hence an economy. The telecom industry in African can play
a huge role in harmonising healthy care, schools, and pre-urban
structural organisation and communication from the CENTRE to the
PERIPHERY -decentralisation of telecommunications infrastructure.

Healthy care in African could be so cheap if the National telecoms
where a bit more involved in determining the geographical distribution
of disease something which can be done through collecting data using
CARTOGRAPHIC methods to map out DRUG DISTRIBUTION, resource allocation
(man power and capital input), disease distribution. The
telecommunication industry is a harbinger in this regard with high
economic returns. How much does it cost to make a geographical
information map? You need data, which can quickly be transferred
through telecommunication infrastructures.

The last point if can be attained on regional levels then can generate
a self-sustaining financing national medical /agricultural /school
research network, administrative network etc. All, which for efficient
management and productive running can only be done through grounding
national telecoms network to pursue such socially productive sectors
in that particular location or regions on the African continent.

Compensatory networks, which are short term and self-financing, are
the TAXING SYSTEM networks. Every regional centre and trading nodes
must be connected into a network loop. Such a network calls for low
level law enforcing network to join like Traffic monitoring, customs,
and boarder to board crossing trade networks.

Then comes the media network, PUBLIC UTILITIES like water and sewerage
utilities, electricity distribution, postal activities, banking and
insurance networks etc. Such entities are self-sustaining which must
be linked to social system networks provided for by National telecoms
to generate national revenues for further social -technological
development. The problem with all the above-mentioned entities is not
are lacking to cause profit maximisation.

I do not understand therefore, what is meant with non-performing
African telecommunication facilities or what privatisation is really
going to provide African societies with such service without the
political weal, social structures, within the nation state concerned.


Every country in Africa should start regional, district or provincial
data gathering centre, which will be connected, to the national
archiving centres.

The region or provincial centres must be financed partly by district,
regional or provisional budgets but mandate by the law. This is the
only way ICT and the telecom industry will percolate the traditional
organisation social structures, whence the African telecom markets can
be then derived. I mentioned the following which the African states
can organise to facilitate for the telecom growth which must be done
and provided for by the region budget for telecom offices against a
socially viable pay; –

1. Population gathering and census
2. School enrolment and output
3. Region market labour activities
4. Agricultural and food production outs and input
5. Fertility and Mortality rates from region healthy centres
6. River and stream hydrological data
7. Flora and fauna /taxonomy data
8. Disease maps and drug distribution /information
9. Tax revenue (region/provincial) collection and report
10. Industrial production data
11. Household data on family socio-economic status
12. Traffic and motor vehicle data
13. Chemical or environmental data
14. Climatology data
15. Land and survey data
16. Pre-urban housing data

All the above should be done on regional, provincial and district
level (strictly not on national level) hence creating the functional
awareness locally while triggering operational structures for
I called a social superior structure and liberating social doing.
Claims that African states do not have the means do not hold. With
this structure in place, all states will divest from above duties and
delegate them near to the people concerned hence causing local,
participatory, popularistic appeal and solving the problem I mentioned
above organisation communication, monitoring, time perspective and
control. It will therefore call for seeking local solution to capital
input like popularising data collection methods and capital input both
human and fixed. That is the role the national telecommunication
should purse vigorously- pass on the article to you respective
government for action.

Management of African telecommunications sector does not mean ownership.

Bwanika .


Ancient Egyptians were closer to Armenians than to Africans

By Rahimu Jabendo via the UAH forum
Egypt is an intensively sophisticated society right from the times of Joseph till now, but aside the little details like the fact that they bury their Pharaohs who then become mummies, what else do you know about this country that is believed to be the richest country ever? Let us run through a few.
1) Egypt presently occupies a land mass of 1million square kilometers making it one of the largest countries in the world. And with a population of over 88million, it is a very dense country. The primary language is Arabic. And their cultural rulers are called Pharaohs.
2) In ancient times, the Egyptians built elaborate structures called pyramids just to serve as tombs for their Pharaohs! And it wasn’t the Israelites that built all of them, the Egyptians used to hire labourers to build the pyramids.
3) It is believed that each pyramid in Egypt houses one Pharaoh and his entire family members and concubines. Therefore when you are in an Egyptian pyramid, watch out for a few ghosts.
4) The Egyptians were the first to believe in the afterlife. Long before Jesus Christ brought the message of redemption, the Egyptians always believed that preserving a dead person’s body through the process of mummification, their soul would live in peace in the world to come. It is still not clear if the mummies used to come back to life though.
5) The ancient Egyptians believed in more than 2000 gods! In fact some Egyptian priests used to spend two years attempting to pray to all the gods and still it was too much. The study of the Egyptian gods too is even more fascinating than that of Greece and Rome.
6) Cats are actually considered sacred animals in Egypt. Every house has a pet cat which brings goodluck and chases away evil spirit, just like the cat from The Mummy.
7) Tue ancient Egyptians invented paper, pens, locks and keys and most important of all, they invented toothpaste!! So when next you brush your teeth in the morning thank the Egyptians for discovering a tool that fights mouth odour. The pens invented were used to write down the ancient Egyptian alphabets which had over 700 characters.
8) The Egyptians also invented the 365 days a year calendar divided into 12 months. This was invented to predict the annual flooding of the Nile. The Egyptians also wrote the first ever book about mathematics in 1650 BC.
9) Equality began in Egypt. In ancient Egypt, women had as much rights as male with some females having even more rights than the males. Women could assume several offices such as the office of Pharaoh!!! So if you are a feminist, Egypt is for you.
10) In ancient Egypt, beer was used to pay labourers,if you go to Egypt and want a job make sure you inform the owner that you wouldn’t want to be paid with beer.

Today, we explore some special facts about the cutest bird in the entire planet

By Rahimu Jabendo via the UAH forum
Penguins are some of the most recognizable beloved birds in the world. They are amazing because of their physical adaptations to survive unusual climates and live mostly at sea. Today, we explore some special facts about the cutest bird in the entire planet.

1. The number of existing penguin species is debated but estimates fall in the range of 17 and 20. 17 of these species are found exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere.

2. Penguins can drink salt water because they have a supraorbital gland located above their eyes which helps them filter the salt from the water.

3. Emperor Penguins are the tallest species, standing nearly 4 feet tall.

4. Though penguins are birds, they lost the ability to fly millions of years ago, but their powerful flippers and streamlined body make them very accomplished swimmers. The fastest specie is Gentoo Penguins, which can reach swimming speeds of 22 mph.

5. A penguin’s wing act the same way while it is swimming as a bird do while it is flying. So penguins essentially fly through water. 😀

6. Penguins are one of the most publicized species of animals that form lasting homosexual couples. Male penguins have severally been observed having sex with other male penguins.

7. Penguins black and white plumage serves as camouflage while swimming. The black plumage on their back is hard to see from above, while the white plumage on their front looks like the sun reflecting off the surface of the water when seen from below.

8. Unlike most birds which lose and replace a few feathers at a time, penguins molt all at once, spending two or three weeks land-bound as they undergo what is called ‘catastrophic molt.’

9. Parents and chicks use their good sense of hearing to locate one another in crowded colonies. When mothers lose their chick, they sometimes attempt to ‘kidnap’ another mother’s chick.

10. Unlike other birds, male penguins incubate the female’s eggs. Emperor Penguin males incubate the female’s eggs for 2 months in the winter without eating while females are at sea. During that time males live off their fat reserves and may lose half of their body weight. When the females return shortly after the eggs hatch, they switch parental duties, and the females fast while the males go to sea to replenish their fat stores.

The Secret Service was established on the day Abraham Lincoln was assassinated

By Rahimu Jabendo via the UAH forum
Most of us are aware of the existence of the Secret Service, the government agency best known for providing security details for the presidents of the United States of America. In movies, they wear sunglasses with dark lenses and have earpieces. In reality, there are decade’s worth of secrets hidden amongst its history.

The Secret Service was established on the day Abraham Lincoln was assassinated. Lincoln approved the idea of establishing the Secret Service on April 14, 1865. Later that night, the president went to the theatre where he was shot in the head.

On today’s history files, we will try to lift the veil of secrecy and learn a bit more about the mysterious organization.

1. The current president isn’t only protected by the Secret Service. Protection covers the family of the president, former presidents and their families and foreign presidents visiting the United States of America.

2. The Secret Service agents protecting the president travel with bags of the president’s blood. They are always ready to use their medical skills to perform a blood transfusion on the president if needed.

3. They make sure the president is never alone, even in the bathroom. The president can’t stay alone with a doctor without an agent as an escort no matter what the president’s problem is. And if they suspect any kind of foul play, they shoot the doctor immediately!

4. They participate in the president’s hobby. Because the president is never alone, agents have to participate in everything in his life so they are often forced to learn new hobbies. Bill Clinton was a well-conditioned jogger which forced his agents to be in great shape in order to be able to keep up. 😀

5. Secret Service uses code names for presidents, it’s not a Hollywood fantasy. For example, Obama was “Renegade,” George Bush was “Tumbler,” Bill Clinton was “Eagle” and Richard Nixon was “Searchlight”

6. The quickest way to annoy a Secret Service agent is asking him to carry your luggage. They won’t agree to carry bags even at the command of the president because their hands are always on their waist. That enables them to be ready to react quickly and raise their weapons.

7. It might interest you to know that there’s an underground bunker that is used by the Secret Service to hide one government representative during an event where all other state officials gather. So if terrorists decide to slaughter the top tier of the government, they will probably fail.

8. The Secret Service headquarters is located in Washington in a building without any identification sign. There is not even a trash can nearby so there’s no place to install bomb.

9. The food of the president is under constant surveillance. Every bite of food presented to the president is prepared under the watchful eyes of the Secret Service, who stare down White House chefs to make sure no one is flavouring with arsenic or rat poison.

10. Surprisingly, Secret Service agents don’t swear to die for their president. It’s understood that something like that could happen but they take every possible step to avoid it. If an agent sacrifices their life for the president, they do it voluntarily. Only one Secret Service agent has died protecting his president since the organization was formed.

Obote never wanted to hurt Prince Mutebi in 1980s

By George Okello in London via UAH forum,
Prince Mutebi was freely let out of Uganda during Obote 2. I remember clearly that he was surrounded by Col John Ogole who was over-ruled by his boss President Milton Obote at the 11th hour before he launched an encirclement and suppression assault. He told Obote that he was not going to take any prisoners. Obote did not want Mutebi’s blood on hands and so allowed him to escape.

Buganda should celebrate the 14 August!

Prince Mutebi and his brother,omulangira Walugembe, charting to Idi Amin in 1974

By Tony Owana via the UAH forum
33 years ago, senior NRM/NRA operatives slipped Prince Ronald Muwenda Mutebi into Uganda via Busia, ending 20 years of exile and paving for the return of Buganda’s EBYAFFE.Strangely, the 14th of August is not an important day in Buganda and Iam sure most Nkoba za Mbogo and Bazzukulu do not know about it being the date of their renaissance.

I am in possession of NGABO newspaper of 15 August 1986 with the headline ‘MUTEBI YESOZZE KAMPALA MU KASIRISE’ written by Charles
Sinnabulya Mwanje and edited by Grace Simwogerere Ssekkeba and both
men plus Kabaka Mutebi are still alive. ‘New Vision’ reproduced this
old NGABO newspaper during coronation anniversary last year, a copy of which I also have. This reproduction was with permission from NGABO Publisher, Omutaka Ndugwa, Grace Semakula Musoke who is also still alive.

Among those who knew of Prince Mutebi’s secret entry is, Gen Elly
Tumwine, retired NRA/UPDF Brigadier Andrew Lugobe Lutaaya (Omutake w’e Ssese), ex-Director General of Internal Security Maj Gen Jim Muhwezi to name a few.

By the time Mutebi toured the NRA-liberated zones in 1985, Dr. Obote was exiled in Zambia and Col. Ogole exiled in Tanzania. There was no war at Katonga in January 1985 because Obote was still in power and NRA in Fort Portal. Did you mean January 1986? Mutebi visited Masaka in September (I think) 1985 and one of his escorts was
Gen Kasirye Ggwanga. Haji Kigongo was there, Col Amanya Mushega was there, Hon Gerald Sendawula was there and I think Brig Matiya Sewankambo was there too. Those who entertained Prince Mutebi (who arrived in a pickup) included Kalifan Muwonge, father of our late Erias Mulindwa Muwonge.I have video evidence of Prince Mutebi’s public meeting in Masaka soon after the Nairobi Peace Talks started and his visit was facilitated by NRA which was controlling this area.


By Rahimu Jabendo via the UAH forum
In 1801, Joseph Samuel, a British citizen was sent to a penal colony of Australia for engaging in robbery. In Australia, Samuel succeeded in escaping and with a gang, he robbed the home of a wealthy woman and in the process, a policeman named Joseph Luker, who was guarding her home, was murdered. In 1803 the authorities captured Samuel. During the trial, the woman identified Joseph Samuel as on of the culprits. Joseph admitted to the robbery but claimed he had not participated in the murder. The other members of the gang, including the leader of the gang, were released due to lack of evidence but because the woman identified Samuel, he was convicted and sentenced to death by hanging. On 26th of September 1803, Samuel and another criminal sentenced to death for another crime, were taken to Parramatta, where many people had gathered to watch the execution.
The common method of hanging then which caused death by slow strangulation was to fasten nooses around the neck of criminals, then drive the cart away after they had been allowed to pray with a priest. The ropes used were made of five cords of hemp, which enabled one to hold 1,000 lb (450 kg), for up to five minutes without breaking, more than sufficient for human executions.

When the rope was placed around their neck and the cart taken away, the other criminal ultimately died by strangulation but Samuel’s rope broke and he dropped to his feet, sustaining an injury in his ankle. The executioner hastily readied a new rope, also five-hemp, and placed it around Samuel’s neck, forced him onto the same cart, and drove the cart away again but this time the rope became loose and Samuel’s leg was able to touch the ground. The other criminal was still kicking weakly at this point. The executioner was sure to have fastened the noose securely around his neck, and as he stood Samuel up to try again, the crowd had become boisterous, calling for Samuel to be freed.

For the third time, the executioner very quickly readied another five-hemp rope, ordered the cart driven back, forced Samuel onto it, fastened the noose around his neck, secured it very carefully and tightly, and then ordered the cart driven away. The rope broke again, and Samuel dropped to the ground and stumbled over, trying to avoid landing on his sprained ankle.

Now the crowd watching the execution stood around in an uproar, and another policeman, watching on horseback, ordered the execution delayed momentarily, while he rode away to find the governor. The governor was summoned to the scene and upon inspection of the ropes, which showed no evidence of having been cut, and the other criminal, who was successfully executed with an identical rope, the governor and the entire crowd agreed that it was a sign from God that Joseph Samuel had not committed any crime deserving of execution and his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment instead. Parramatta’s town doctor tended to his sprained ankle.

Global warming is the result of human practices like emission of Greenhouse gases

By ‘rahimu jabendo’ via Ugandans at Heart (UAH) Community

This is one of the most publicized environmental problem faced in recent times, due to the grave consequences attached to it. Global warming is the result of human practices like emission of Greenhouse gases. A greenhouse gas (GHG) is a gas that absorbs and emits radant energy within the thermal infrared range. Greenhouse gases cause the greenhouse effect.The atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan also contain greenhouse gases. The primary GHG’s in the earth’s atmosphere are water vapor, carbondioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone, and it results in rising temperatures of the oceans and the earth’s surface causing melting of polar ice caps, rise in sea levels and also unnatural patterns of precipitation such as flash floods, excessive snow or desertification.

Scientists have predicted that If the emission of greenhouse gas continue at their rate in 2019, global warming could cause Earth’s surface temperature to exceed historical values as early as 2047, which will result to harmful effects on ecosystems, biodiversity and human livelihoods.

Greece is considered the first democracy in the world

By Rahimu Jabendo via the UAH forum
You probably know a lot about Greek gods and the likes, but what else do you know about Greece in general? Let’s put through a few.

1) Greece is considered the first democracy in the world. Long before people even figured out that voting makes sense, the Greeks used to vote for who would lead them, although it was restricted to just men, adult males, it was still pretty cool.

2) With an area of 50,949 square miles (131,958 square kilometers), Greece is a decently large country with a population of over 10million people.

3) During Summer, tourists who visit Greece outnumber the local indigenes, and the total population more than doubles. That is why Greece has the largest number of airports.

4) The saying ‘taking the bull by the horns’ actually originated from Greece, when Hercules saved Crete from a raging bill by dragging it’s horns. We don’t know if it truly happened, but it is still an awesome saying.

5) An Island in Greece, called Ikaria is one of the blue zones in the world, that is people live longer in those places. So if you want a longer life, you may want to go to Greece.

6) in Greece, waving at someone with an open palm is a great insult, so don’t wave, just shake.

7) The ancient Greek alphabets is actually the oldest ever form of writing even before the Romans invented their Roman numerals. So when next you encounter an alpha or beta sign, show it some respect.

8) The Greece believe that man was created by Prometheus while animals were created by his brother. They also believe that all the punishments sent to man came through Pandora in a box.

9) Greece is the world’s third largest producer of Olive as well as marbles.

10) The Greeks invented the Olympic games to honor Zeus. A cook actually won the first sprint race in the Olympics long before history knew about it.

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