Category History

THE ROOTS OF THE 1966 CRISIS


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By Patrick Otto via the UAH forum

Initial troubles centred on the financial position of Buganda, leading to protracted wrangles between Entebbe and Mmengo over the interpretation of Article 1 of schedule 9 of the 1962 constitution (See pp. 173-4 1962 Constitution at compatriotto, http://www.scribd.com/doc/20262240/Uganda-Constitution-1962). The Central government sought to deduct from its grants to Mmengo additional revenue accruing to Buganda from graduated tax on non-Africans, rents received from public land, leases to urban authorities etc.

Earlier on, the Relationship Commission (Munster Commission) had laid out the means through which the central government would maintain firm financial discipline over local authorities but curiously, Mmengo did not think that those stipulations applied to Buganda insisting that its relationship with the centre was special and different from that of other local authorities. This (mistaken) view was largely informed by the leverage Buganda had over the UPC government, having eased it into power through the UPC-KY alliance. In spite of that, though, AM Obote is remembered to have insisted that, “we refuse to sign a blank cheque to the Buganda Government”.
For all its feeling of being special, Buganda was however not assisted by the never-ending financial misdemeanours by the Michael Kintu ministry (Kintu was the Katiikiro until he was deposed in 1964 after Buganda lost in the referendum over the “lost counties”). While Buganda had £1 million in its coffers by the end of 1958, this had dwindled to a mere £465,000 in 1960. In 1963, it was in the red by £226,863.

In 1965, the Planning Commission of the Buganda Government warned that the Kabaka’s government was on the brink of bankruptcy and that the ministers whose nepotism had reached new limits were the worst offenders. The report also sent out danger signs on the state of morale of the Buganda civil service which it warned, had reached a very low ebb. Another report of a committee led by a Makerere academic, DP Ghai, warned that the feeble control by the central government on public expenditure in the kingdom had resulted in a perilous financial situation at Mmengo.
In 1965, Buganda finances were already in a considerable overdraft but even then, Mmengo went ahead to craft a budget that right from conception, suffered a deficit of £430,000, all this on top of a sum of £200,000 loaned internally to key officials at Mmengo for personal use.

Through all this, the services that had been transferred to the Buganda government as a federal authority were being heavily subsidised by the central government. Even in the face of that reality and evidence of financial indiscipline, Mmengo wanted the payer of the piper not to have anything to do with calling the tune: the Kabaka Government insisted that in spite of Central government subsidies, Mmengo was entitled to spend according to its own policies and legislation. Entebbe on the other had insisted that it was not obliged to subsidise schemes over which it had no control, particularly in light of reports of serious financial impropriety on the part of the Kabaka Government.

All this tussling was happening against the backdrop of the pending resolution of the thorny question of the “lost counties” (Buyaga and Bugangaizi) of Bunyoro; which the 1961 Constitutional Conference, attended by Buganda, was supposed to be resolved by a referendum to be held by the central government on a convenient date not earlier than two years after independence, i.e., after 8th October 1964. Thus, the stage was set for a serious political stalemate between Entebbe and Mmengo……
We hinted on the ugly encounter between the 1964 referendum and the virus of financial discipline of the government at Mmengo. It is important that we take the question of financial indiscipline to its conclusion, not just as an aspect of the administrative incompetence of the Michael Kintu ministry but also to highlight the sheer inability of Buganda to manage on its affairs on its own. At this stage, we mention the question of the referendum only secondarily: it will receive special attention later as a principle aspect in the subsequent rupture between Entebbe and Mmengo. Money first!

It should be recalled that, at this point, the Mmengo establishment had deluded itself into thinking that the referendum on the “lost counties” would never take place and if at all it took place, it would be in Mmengo’s favour. The common view at Mmnego was: the counties were “a god-given our inheritance”: the only way that Buganda would lose those counties would be if a flood or “mukoka” washed them away and carried them to Bunyoro.

Such was the mood of morbid delusion and grievous self-deception at Mmengo that the dawning of the truth was fraught with the possibilities of instability. That instability lay waiting. To shore up the delusion, money had to be spent or rather squandered on what was called the “Ndaiga Scheme”, approved by the Lukiiko and initiated in mid-1963 with the aim of promoting economic development in the “lost counties, improving the road system, but most importantly, resettling Baganda ex-service personnel and their families, along the patterns of Israeli Kibbutzim.
It did not take long for it to become evident that Ndaiga was becoming a bottomless pit. By January 1964, questions were being raised on whether the Dr EMK Muwazi, the Minister in charge of Ndaiga (also holding the portfolio of Health and Works) had received Lukiiko approval to spend public money on the scheme. Lukiiko committee that investigated the scheme discovered that,
1.£120,000 was spent without authorisation
2.£45,000 could not be accounted for, and supposedly cashed as a cheque made out in Dr Muwazi’s name, in a London bank)
3.£12,000 had been wasted on the purchase of junk machinery (not tanks or helicopters)
4.£4,000 had been spent on road surveys which had in fact been already undertaken by Uganda government
5. An undisclosed (but reportedly obscene) amount had been spent on entertainment.
More was to follow later in 1964 when the fear of losing the referendum led to the of an excess of £30,000, of which, £10,000 was spent on “gifts”. A lot was spent on campaigners deployed by individual Mmengo ministers. Many of those campaigners (like those of Masembe-Kabali) filed fictitious weekly reports on stories of success and squeezed large amounts of money from Mmengo. A few hours before the referendum, £2,500 was released by the Omuwanika (treasurer) “which in that time could only have been spent on converting the thirsty or congratulating the converted”, as one observer noted.

aftermath

‘The Minister of Information and Broadcasting and Tourism, Mr. A. Ojera, receives the ignition keys to the film van which was donated by the Canadian High Commissioner, Mr. McGill, on behalf of his government to the Ministry of Information.’

Published in Uganda Argus, Thursday, October 6, 1966

For all that great, if clumsy financial effort, Mmengo lost the referendum massively. The rude awakening that resulted was to give further momentum towards the crisis that reached its climax in May 1966.
LOST COUNTIES
As can be seen, by the time of the 1964 referendum, trouble was already brewing amongst the Mmengo oligarchy over the financial discipline of the chiefly clique in charge at the time. In the normal Mmengoist pattern of always scrounging for a scapegoat, the hotheaded Mmengoists were baying the blood of the Katiikiro, Michael Kintu.

But let us focus mainly on the referendum on the “lost counties”. Recall that the Banyoro had for many decades, from as early as 1921, petitioned the colonial authorities over the issue of territory grabbed by Mmengo with the assistance of the British. By the 1961 Independence conference, it was clear that putting off that issue was bound to cause serious problems. The idea of a referendum was initially recommended in 1961 by Munster Commission; with the Molson Committee of 1962 going as far as recommending a direct transfer of the counties without a referendum to avoid possible communal conflict.

Mmengo flatly rejected all those recommendations. At the constitutional conference, however, it was agreed that two of the seven “lost counties” be transferred to the central government, with the requirement that the holding of the referendum had to be included in the constitution. Based on that requirement, the constitution stipulated that a referendum would be held by the central government on a convenient date not earlier than two years after independence, that is, 8th October 1964.
As early as 1963, Kabaka Mutesa II – also the President of Uganda – had thrown his lot into ensuring that either he sabotaged the constitutional requirement for the referendum or he influenced the outcome in Mmengo’s favour. Accompanied by 8,000 Baganda ex-servicemen, Mutesa moved to the territory that was the subject of the referendum and set up camp at Ndaiga hunting lodge in present-day Kibale district, to the southeast of Lake Albert.

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Published several times in Uganda Argus, October 1966

Edward Mutesa immediately set out to settle his followers in a move that was to cause serious tensions with the local Banyoro. He carried out certain actions to assert his presence in Bunyoro as Buganda monarch, and in total disregard for his position as President of Uganda. Many of President Edward Mutesa’s actions focused on terrorizing the local populace. Mutesa notes in his “Desecration of my Kingdom” how, in June 1964 he burned down a village in the lost counties because according to him, “a meeting to whip feelings” against him was going to be held there. To further emphasize the fact that he was above the law and the constitution, he also went ahead to shoot 9 Banyoro peasants on a market day in Ndaiga. He suspected that one of their lot was planning to poison him. This was the President of Uganda, personally terrorizing sections of the population over whom he presided, all in an attempt to flout the constitution.

All those actions did not alter the fact that the referendum had to take place. In September 1964, the bill authorising the referendum was passed in parliament and according to the constitution, President Mutesa was required to append his signature to the bill. His loyalty to Buganda blinded him of the fact that he was head of state of Uganda and was duty-bound to uphold the constitution.

Obote was a cunning politician!


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Never,in the history of Africa, has any politician proved himself as capable of turning national crisises to the advantage of the nation as the President of Uganda Dr.Apollo Milton Obote.When in 1956 he returned from Nairobi Kenya from exile ,he found the Uganda National Congress, the main political party in the country at that time, suffering from a deep division caused by ambitious men within the party who were incessantly resorting to the removal of the leader of the party, I.K. Musazi.These rivaling politicians found that they had created so much confusion in the party that they were not able to clear it and discovered to their dismay that the people were fed up with their machinations ane would not have any of them as the leader leader of the national political party.

The people elected a quiete,disciplined and dependable man to lead the party. They elected Obote. Mr.Joseph Kiwanuka would not have this,and so he formed what became known as Kiwanuka’s wing of the Uganda National Congress (UNC).This wing soon became known as a One Man Congress. The one man was,ofcourse, Mr.Kiwanuka himself who was said to be both the leader and follower. In this way it was laughed out of existence.

In December, 1959, the recommendations of the Wild Commission were published. The majority remmendations favoured immidiate self Government leading to independence. The minority report recommended a delay in the achievement of independence. The British Colonial Government in Uganda accepted the recommendation. There was a crisis. The then Mr.Apollo Milton Obote called the meeting of the only two parties which had members in the National Assembly and announced at the end of the meeting that the two parties represented in the National Assembly, ie the Uganda National Congress and the Uganda People’s Party had decided to merge into one political party to be known as the Uganda People’s Congress, (UPC).

SOURCE: THE GOLD ALLEGATION by S. M.mpambara.

Who are the personalities in this photo?


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Front right in front of Amin and in white tunic Sheikh Ahmada Nsambu, after Obote Sheikh Swaib Semakula, Sheikh Mivule.

Back row after Amin Sheikh Abdulnoor (of Nabalanga and father of Late Deputy Mufti Kinene), young fellow between Sheikhs Semakula and Mivule is Haji Juma Kisaka, far right back row is Sheikh Abdu Obeid Kamulegeya.

WHO ARE REALLY THE NUBIS OR NUBIANS IN UGANDA ?


By Ronald Okuonzi via UAH forum

They are the original true citizens of Lado but as Lado is disguised under the nick names in English as West Nile or ( North West of Uganda now ) , Southern Sudan and North Eastern Congo , in Uganda they became and simply are known as Nubis or Nubians and are too closely associated with Idi Amin’s rule in Uganda in that period of 1971 – 1972 .

In what sense are they associated with Idi Amin who was the President
of Uganda , 1971 —- 1979 ?

Ugandans prefered / and prefer to know and have Amin associated to this nick named group of the people ( Nubians ) .

These so citizen people of Lado because of their Religion faith ISLAM were supposed and easily aggregated to be the descendants of former soldiers of the Khedive of Egypt when the whole of Sudan and the Equatoria Lado was under the Rule of Turco – Egyptian Sudan . Especially a large number of these Soldiers who were based in Equatoria / Lado were under their Commandant Governor Emin Pasha who was ruling Lado Equatoria or well known as ” the Equatoria Province of Egypt ” for the Khedive Ismail of Egypt under the Ottoman Sovereignty .

Following the Arab Mahdi’s Islamic uprising and having defeated the Anglo – Turco – Egptian Soldiers and having created the Mahdist State , the Equatoria Lado was cut off from Egypt and no more under Egyptian Rule . So Emin Pasha who was ruling Lado for the Khedive of Egypt found himself with this bulk of the Army to Control and Govern Lado by himself alone . Not to live Soldiers floating in Lado , Emin Pasha made a deal with Lord Captain Federick Lugard of the British East Africa Company following the Kavalli Agreement signed between Lugard himself and Commandant of Lado Soldiers Major Salem Matera to join the King Africa Rifles which was being newly formed . Emin Pasha later ran away from Lado never to return to Lado anymore . More information , one can get from my Book – Lado the Occupied Territory – Heart of Africa .

The British desperately needed well trained Africa sodiers to carve out their British East African Empire . Bingo !

Lado became prerogative for the supplies of Military service men to the British as they were found excellent brave Soldiers , well trained by the Ottoman : Turco – Egyptian Army which had acquired similar British Training Military skills . Yes , these African soldiers later were , taken on by Frederick Lugard of the Imperial British East Africa Company and formed the core of the forces used to carve out much of Britain’s East African Empire .

Following the Military mutiny in 1897 against the British originating from Uganda , the mutiny had effect on these people and after the reprisal of the Mutiny by the British sodiers and the Indian — Asian soldiers brought in from India by the British , these people became Displaced Persons , the Stateless Persons and the Internal Refugee Problems arising among them and they became so called Nubians ( the Lado Muslim Community of mainly LUU / LUI people of Lado ) who eversince then were being held mainly in Uganda and Kenya as Prisoners in Reservation camps , the so called Restricted Settlements ( Bombo, Soroti and Gulu in Uganda and Kibira near Nairobi in Kenya ) , all this was started by the British since 1897 . The British always called anybody black person but as long as is of Moslem / Islam Faith is a Nubian – ” No wonder an ordinary Ugandan knows any foreigner of Moslem Faith is a Nubian ” . This has been the British teaching Lessons to Ugandans .

Repeat , These People were always referred to simply as ” The Nubians ” by the British though they are Muslims of Lado origin ( Luu and Lui People ) who were removed by the British Colonial Authority because of their Mutiny the same year 1897 when they were ordered to go and fight against their own People in Lado . Their leaders were executed in Uganda including their Military Commander , Bilal Amin , the Grandfather of Idi Amin the Former late President of Uganda 1971 – 1979 ( This Mutiny in Uganda was / is sometimes wrongly writen by some Historians quoting it as Sudanese Mutiny of 1897 in Uganda ) .

These people inother-words are not Sudanese as such but are of the Sudanic race in the vast Sudan ( The name Sudan meaning Black in Arabic anyway ) Territory of Africa . See the proper use of the word name Sudan in Arabic please .

Sudanese are the citizens of the Independent Republic States of Sudan ( both North and South Sudan States now in Africa being created by Great Britain and United States of America ) as we all know the truth . The adjective Sudanic electively used and refers , describes blacks in general . Inotherwards the Nubians described by the British said here are properly the Sudanic citizens of Lado and Nubia .

Note : The real truth behind is that —

The British have never forgotten nor forgiven the Lado Muslims for this Breach of Discipline , which explains why these displaced People referred to as ” The Nubians in East Africa “, and are still being punished now as ” Unwanted Persons ” . Apart from being held in the Special Settlements as Prisoners , the Lado Muslims ( Nubians ) are being heavily discriminated against in the British East Africa , very much like the American Indians were treated by the Europeans .

It is therefore and hereby noted further that : From the days of Emin Pasha to those of Idi Amin , some Nubi men were identified by a marking of three vertical lines on the face – the ‘ One-Elevens . Although since Amin’s overthrow now many Muslims from the North of Uganda ,men and women prefer to identify themselves as members of local Ugandan ethnic groups rather than as ‘Nubis / or Nubians’; leaving aspects of Nubi identity . After the overthow of Idi Amin from Lado / or so called West Nile by the British and later the name which Uganda / Ugandans inherited to disguise Lado , all those from West of the Nile became labelled as Nubians . Ugandans on any among Ugandan rebel groups that springs from West Nile / Lado , and who knows as well as in cyberspace .

amin

Who was or is Idi Amin Awongo Dada ?

Amin was / is a KUKU / Kakua tribe of the people of West Nile / Lado born to the Mother a Lugbara and Father a Kuku / Kakua ( Lado Enclave State in Sudan Central Africa ) but not a Nubian . The real called Nubians were / are the ones who settled in the North of the Sudan State / formely called Anglo / Egyptian Sudan by the British which became independent in 1956 at the foot hill of Mt. Nuba and they had a Kingdom of their own which later was over run / conquired by the Ottoman , European and United States American Invaders .

Note : These real Black Nubians and Ladoans had an allegiance in the Rebellion to fight together against the Pharaonic Rule of Egypt over them when all of them were living in Egypt . They mantained a good relationship after their exodus from Egypt where they settled in the vast Territory Area which the Arabs often called ”The Sudan” — The name Sudan hereby has nothing to do with the present Independent Republic State of Sudan or the newly carved out South Sudan State by the Anglo / Americans in 2011 .

Initialy as said above , the Nubians settled at the foot of Mountain they calle Mt. Nuba and from that they took their identity as Nubians while the Ladoans settled at the foot of Mountain they called Mt. Lado from which they took their indentity as Ladoans in the vast East Sudan Lands of Africa . The truth , however , Ugandan People fail to see is that they do recognize themselves and their geographical Land Areas out of their Tribal Languages while Lado and Nubi People can not . Surely the British gave Ugandans their so called African Tropical Education and the Ugandans got it all . What a shame !!

The Sudanic or Black Indentity of the Population People of the Kingdom State of Lado


bugingo
By Ronald Okuonzi via UAH forum
The term Name Sudanics as an adjective to use persisted for the European and the Arab Colonialists to use and became to be of and in reference or to describe the Sedentary , Farmers of the Luu and Lui People who form or constitute the Majority , ( over Ninety five percent the Population ) of Lado – Sudan Central Africa , in the Basin of the Watershed Region of the two Rivers of Congo and the Nile .

What do the term Names of Lue , Lui , Luo , Luu and Bantu / or Ntu mean really in the Black Peoples’ Societies or Groupings in the Central and East Sudan of Africa ?

These terms came about by , to say , as a calling Names in around 10th – 13th Centuries when the different African People were in the phases of organising themselves and in forming their Nation – States , creating the different State Kingdoms in the East and Central Sudan and so in identifying themselves in their Grouping Names as established and making the Names known to others through Ululation – Vocally tones or Viva voce which means :

Viva voce is a Latin phrase in use , literally meaning ” with living Voice ” but most often translated as ” by word of mouth ” , as these were the means only to say of broadcasting or transmitting messages by those in the Early times or Period in the World Civilisations by then and even up to now still , and this was often done evoking the chosen Names in the Times of Wars and Joyful moments of Celebrations in the different Languages in which the names derived . The Word Ululation in Lado Language versions is ( Nduru / or Cere or ce – ere beza ) .

These Names became Symbolic versions attribuited to the Lands and to the People who were or became the Inhabitants of the Countries or Kingdoms or the Nation – States then and this is how the Names and Distinctions between the various People and Tribes Names came about of the Lue , the Lui , the Luo ,the Luu , the Bantu or Ntu and many of the others elsewhere in Africa .

Today , instead of Ululations , may be , we hear of variuos Country Names in the World being evoked through devices like Music patterns in singing National Anthems , exhibiting Military Parades , showing National Flags , making of Court of Arms and many other relative Symbols or Writing forms , in demonstrating as a Matter of choice , the concerned People or of the different Peoples out of their Beliefs accepted to create or in creating symbols for their Unity purposes in and for or of their Countries , States , Tribes , or Nations – States / or Kingdoms State Beings .

Lado has been and is no exception to these Processes of happening Beliefs , as can be seen even of Lado Occupation Flags used by the Colonial Occupants and of the present Lado Flags designed by the Ladoans themselves , representing LadoTerritory indicated already in this Book : Flags of Lado kept ever and still in use now , during , and in this Period of the Struggle issue of Lado .

Truly , when we see in the Human World Affairs , in fact , the whole World pattern States or Countries , Nations , Kingdom States Names started or came about in the same ways by the different Peoples calling themselves , giving Identification Names to call their Nations or the Places of their gathering Land Territories , which today , We all Peoples of these Planet Earth as we call it as ” The World ” nothing has changed .

We see it today , in the same way as it was before , as those of Ancient Egypt , Maya Kingdoms , United Kingdoms of Great Britain , Kingdom of Denmark , Ancient Empire of Greek , Ancient Kingdom of Rome , that of the Rome Italics , the present Jews of the State of Isreal , the Early Kingdom of Palestine , ” KAARI / or State Kingdom of Lado of todate as an Occupied Territory , Kingdom of Congo , Kingdom of Sokoto , Kingdom of Mali , Kingdom of Lybia , Just see or bear in Mind of the differences between : of the Court of Arms and Flags used by Great Britain and the Kingdom State of Belgium over Lado and that one designed by the Ladoans Kingdom of Algeria , Kingdom of Morocco , Ancient China , Ancient Mongolia —- etc —- etc — on this Planet Earth .

Everywhere and in all corners of this World of Ours as Human Beings and as being described ” The Primates of Living Beings of the Planet Earth ” , nothing changed and has changed till todate and I think the Nature Mother who created us has no Bigger idea to think of and change it either . So , why do we live by Killing ourselves as Human Beings as the Created People on this Heavenly Planet on which we all live on , yet we all know that : the Human Culture is the same and observed everywhere of Human race on this Globe Planet Earth . Why should the Colonialists , the Colonial Minded People only want to Colonise others then , knowing that every Human being created has that ability to co-operate with each other ?

The Name Lado

The name Lado , as well , in its derived form , comes from the Outcry or Ululations of the same People who identified themselves as the People of or with the same Cultural Heritage who , have lived on their Land and are still living on their – Home Land in Africa on which they lived as said for Centuries whereby they attributed or gave the Name Lado to recall and remember forever of their Forefathers and Foremothers who liberated the Ladoans from , in , Egypt and who arrived to settle on the Land on which their Grandchildren Generations lived or are today still living in or on their Land Areas .

No single Person as a Ladoan since from 649 BC when they left Egypt till todate has ever had has an idea of occupying or of possessing and to own other Peoples Land Areas or Territories and for sure they will never go to kill others or other Peoples to occupy their Lands .

The word Lado which , literary really means , Here they Lie – Down and in the Lado Language versions , is referring to the Dead Bodies of the Heroes of the Grand Forefathers and Grand Foremothers who were the Ancestors of the People of the todays’ Lado , consisting of the 29 Tribes forming the Kaari or the Kingdom of Lado . It is for this reason that , the Lado People can not allow their Home – Lado Land , to be colonised and recolonised each time by any Foreign Power .

The Lado People are therefore fighting Day in , Day out in avoiding Lado to be destroyed and for no reasons permit any other Foreign Power to take away their Lands on which their own Ancestors or Grandfathers , Grandmothers as Parents lived , who fought throughout their Lifes , died and remained buried on the Land which they founded and named the Territory as Lado in the Heart of Africa .

In conclusion to say , Lado People will never allow , are not allowing Great Britain and Belgium together now with their satellite Countries and People of Uganda , D R Congo and now that of South Sudan created in 2011 by Great Britain and United States of America to occupy Lado still .

Where is Lado in Africa ?

Repeating : Seen already on the Map of the Continent of Africa Map drawn by the Colonialists of the Position of Lado with its surrounding Countries which were differently occupied by the European Colonialists since from 1891 – 1895 and after which Lado was purposely removed or cancelled by the British Government Authorities later and completely after 1895 , through their Royal British National Geographic Society , was to hide Lado or Lado Kingdom from the Public eyes to see and to know of Lado in the World .

The surrounding Countries to Lado today are still now the so called Independent African Countries which were the existing Colonial Countries surrounding Lado , they are :

The Republic State of Uganda : former Colony or Protectorate of Great Britain from 1894 and which became Independent in 1962 ;

The Democratic Republic State of Congo : former Colony of the Kingdom of Belgium under King Leopold II from 1885 and became Independent in 1960 ;

The Republic State of South Sudan : former South Province Region of the United Republic of Sudan State which was once a Colony of Great Britain as the proclaimed Anglo / Egyptian Sudan Condominium from 1899 and this Anglo / Egyptian Sudan became Independent in 1956 as the United Republic of Sudan State from Great Britain ;

Note :

The South Province Region of the United Republic State of Sudan became Independent as Republic of South Sudan anyway in 2011 which was recommended and encouraged and being supported by both Great Britain and the United States of America – USA , as these two Super Powers know perfectly well that North Lado has been and was attached to the South Sudan .

South Sudan as an excuse to get Independence was only to hide the Struggle issue of Lado People liberating themselves from the so called South Sudan which was once known as South Mahdiyya or Mahdist State , 1885 – 1898 .

But , as for Lado , and as everybody knows , Lado remains still as an Occupied State in Africa under the joint efforts being exercised still by the Colonialist Great Britain and Belgium and are carrying it out through their above mentioned former Colonial Countries and are making sure not to relinguish the overdue Freedom and Sovereign Rights of Lado since from 15th May 1947 till todate through their pretext now , that , they are no longer involved into the Political African Affairs as Europeans and as Americans , which is not true at all . Infact , They are still the very ones :

Britain and Belgium being the Key Responsible ones as the two Europeans of the Western World Countries and with United States of America – USA , indirectly is involved too , following the earlier Treaty Agreements of the Turco – Egyptian Firman of 13th February 1841 , and the Turco – Egyptian Firman of 1st April 1869 which were signed by the Ottomans , Europeans and United States of America – USA , involving all of them for the Occupation of the vast Land Territories of Africa and especially of the Sudan – Central Africa where Lado is located .

See the Map of Lado location in Africa , I will give you more detail Maps of Lado later please drawn out by the colonialist at one time — around 1891 . Lado became seperated by the Recognition International convention of September 1892 as State while Uganda become recognised as State by the same International Convention on Ist April of 1894 inspite Uganda in 189o was actually a German Colony being exchanged to be under Great Britain for Heligoland for the Germans to take over . For your Status as being a Ladoan , I guess your parents came out of the War between the Sudanic – Ladoans and the Luo Nilotics out which came out the ALUR tribes as I have already said . You ought to be one of the sibblings

WHO ARE NUBIANS?


By Ronald Okuonzi via UAH forum

Nubian civilization pre – dates that of the Egyptian as we all know . The earliest artefacts that were found in this region date to around 300,000 years ago , possibly earlier. Kemet and Nubia were closely linked from around 6000 years ago . Early pottery indicates that the Nubians were capable of making very thin , high quality bowls and jars from 7000 years ago ; these skills were taken to Egypt as the Black origin people moved northwards . It is remembered that the Kingdom of Kush /or sometimes written as Cush /kʊʃ, kʌʃ/ ) – was an ancient African Kingdom of the Blacks situated on the confluences of the Blue Nile , White Nile , and the River Atbarain what is now the Republic of Sudan recently divided into two States by Great Britain and United States of America as South and North Sudan States in 2011 <<<< .

Note :
The Kushite era of rule in Nubia was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt , it was centered at Napata in its early phase . After King Kashta ( the Kushite ) invaded Egypt in the 8th century BC , the Kushite Emperors ruled as Pharaohs of the Twenty fifth dynasty of Egypt for a century , until they were expelled by the Assyrians under the rule of Esarhaddon .

During Classical antiquity , the Kushite imperial capital was at Meroe . In early Greek geography , the Meroitic Kingdom was known as Ethiopia . The Kushite Kingdom with its capital at Meroe persisted until the 4th century AD , when it weakened and disintegrated due to internal rebellion .

By the 1st century AD , the Kushite capital had been captured by the Beja Dynasty , who tried to revive the empire . The Kushite capital was eventually captured and burnt to the ground by the Kingdom of Axum . More is said still in this book about the Axumites , Nubians and Ladoans anyway to find out about them .

– In fact Nubia was originally called or known also as “ Ta Sety ” , the Land of the Bow . The Nubians were skilled warriors , famous also for their wrestling .

The word Nubian comes from the Ancient Egyptian word ‘ nbt ’ , meaning gold .

The Nubians controlled the gold mines and were often shown in Tomb paintings bringing gold as an offering . Geographically, Nubia is defined as the Land between Dongola in northern Sudan and Aswan in southern Egypt . This region is home to People who are linked through dialects that belong to a distinct Language that connects them linguistically to the Ancient Nubian language , but who are culturally diverse now from each other and from the past .

Nubians are divided into three main groups : the Danaqla and Mahas in Sudan and the Sikurta around Aswan in Egypt . Nubian Language , like Ancient Egyptian Language , belongs to the African Language family . Idem , all Lado Languages in Sudan Central Africa like all the rest belong to the African Family .

Modern Nubian culture lately was affected by the building of the Aswan dam in the 1960’s . This dam prevented the annual flooding of the river Nile but also meant that a huge lake was formed behind it . This lake flooded many ancient sites and modern Nubian communities . Some temples such as Abu Simbal , Kalabsha and Philae , were moved block by block in order to save them . However , many old Nubian settlements and people’s homes were lost then – .

. . . . . .

Origin of the Name Africa :

The Name Africa came into the European Western use through the Romans , who infact used the Name : the Name Africa Terra —- ” Land of the Afri – plural or Afer as singular ” which was meant for describing the Black Peoples or the Moors of the Northern part of the Continent of Africa which was considered by them as the Province then under Roman Empire with its Capital Carthage – which actually corresponds to the Modern – day Tunisia in their so called Africa – Land of the Afri . The origin , meaning of the word Afer comes from the Phoenician word Afar which inturn means Dust .

The Phoenicians described ” Afri ” referring to Tribe – probably was referring to the ” Black – Berber Tribes ” who were living , residing or dwelt in North Africa by then in the Carthage Area . This word became so much used by the Greeks in their Greek Language versions of the word Aphrike , meaning without Cold . The same word in Latin Aprica , meaning Sunny .

Later on , the Historian Leo Africanus ( 1495 – 1554 ) attributed the Origin to the Greek word Phrike – meaning a Land free of Cold and Horror . But we get to note the name of the change of sound from ” ph to f ” in Greek is datable to about the first century , so this can not be the origin of the Name .

Egypt , as we call it today in English Language , was considered as part of the Continent of Asia by the Ancient Greeks and first assigned to becoming part of their designed name Africa by the Geographer Ptolemy ( 85 – 165 AD ) , who accepted the Egyptian – Alexandria as the Prime Meridian and made the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea as the Boundary between Asian and African Continents . So the White Western Europeans including the pretending to be called White Arabs later on came to understand the real extent of the African Continent and the idea of Africa expanded or continued to expand with their knowledge only about the African People and their Lands – meaning : ” No more for the the rest of the World to know of and really about the African People and of their Cultural Heritage ” .

THE HISTORY LINES OF THE LUO WHO ARE ACTUALLY NUBIANS


By Ronald Okuonzi via UAH forum

The Intricate Issue of the Luo – Nilotic presnce in Lado Kingdom extending then to Uganda and elsewhere in Africa

– The presence of the Luo – Nilotics in the Kingdom of Lado – << which is answer to discover who are the Luo's in Uganda .

The settlements of the Luo – Nilotics in Lado are the Populations of the Alur People or sometimes refered to them by the name as the Jonam people of Luo – Nilotic groupings according to the European system of groupings of the different African Peoples in the East Sudan of the Continent of Africa .

The European system groupings of the Africans in this Regions of East and Central Africa are based on the names they have attributed to call them as : Sudanics , Nilotics , Hamites or sometimes Nilo – Hamites and Bantu or Ntu Peoples who in their turn , dominate mostly the Central and South parts or Regions of Africa .

The Nilotics , principaly occupied the Middle Nile Valley which was best known and renamed as the Egyptian Sudan by the Ottomans , the rest of the Arabs and the European Vanguards who first Occupied it in from 1820 – 1841 . The Middle Nile was actually before being dominated by the Nuba People who lived as in their distinct Kingdoms they formed of : Nobatia , Makuria , and Alodia Kingdoms .

It must be noted hereby that Nobatia , Makuria and Alodia were one time as One Big Kingdom called Nuba Kingdom which was later defeated or conquered by the Ottomans and changed the name Nuba to Egyptian Sudan .

Luo – Nilotic grouping People were allowed to settle in Lado areas or Territories by the Agreement reached between the Luu – Sudanic People of Lado and the migrants of the Luo – Nilotic People in the East Sudan following the wars which took place and started , between Bari – Tribes of the Lui – Sudanic people of Lado and the migrants of Luo – Nilotic People in East Sudan , way back in 1650 , on Bari Lands of Lado .

The war was first waged on the Bari – Tribes of the Lui – Sudanics of North Lado Region of Lado by the Luo – Nilotic Settlers or Inhabitants of South Sudan of the Egyptian Sudan Territory with their Aims to have taken and Occupy the Land or Territories of Lado Kingdom . The War continued through the Lugbari – Luu Sudanic Land Areas of Lado passing through the foot Mountain Hill of Arua at a well known place called Barifa Area in Ayivu County of today and this is where the War reached its highest peak Battle ground fighting and lastly ended up at the foot Mountain of Mt . Logiri in Vura County of today in Lado .

The name Barifa , by the way , comes out of this War because in the Area , a lot of the Dead Body bones of the Sudanic – Bari and the rest of the Fighters were only seen everywhere in the Area and till today is a remembered Area by all Ladoans or Lado Peoples as History records by this given name as Barifa or Barifala .

Note :

'' The word Fala means Bones in English Language versions and is a suffix added to Bari '' .

The Sudanic – Lugbari , joined in the Fight and stood strongly by the Bari Tribes as being of the same Sudanic – Ladoans to chase off from the Lado Lands the Migrant Nilotic – Luo People . A Peace Treaty , which became known as the River Odrua Agreement by the Lugbari – Tribe under the auspices of the Agofe or King of Lado was reached in year 1760 , thanks to the efforts of the King or Omukoma of Bunyoro Kingdom who acted as an Intermediary to end the War .

The whole Story of the Nilotic Alur as the Luo people settlers in Lado is that : they came about and are the descendants of both the Luu and Lui – Sudanic and the Luo – Nilotic Peoples .

The Nilotic Soldiers best known as the Luo Warriors by that time during the War with the Sudanics , raped the Sudanic Women and many of these Women became pregnant with the Luo – Nilotic Soldiers or Warriors . Their babies of mixed race Tribes , with both Sudanic and Nilotic blood , who later became known as the Alur or Aluru – name given to them by the Lugbari – Luu Sudanic Tribes of Lado , had their destiny sealed by the Luo – Nilotic Leaders who ordered their Soldiers to kill the Babies . It was and is for this reason , the Sudanic Women with their Babies were all the time being taken to be hidden and protected by the Sudanic – Tribes People of the LUU and LUI everywhere they lived in Lado Lands .

For easier Indentification of the Children , the Lugbari People called them Alurua Children meaning the Children with their Mothers for safety guidance . So in Lado , the name Alur / or Aluru comes from the Lugbari Sudanic Language versions as a nickname which is referred to a bird they call Alurua .

The bird's habitat is on the ground , hidden in the grass and feeds at most on and for its diet on small bitter red peppers in the grass . These descendant Children of both Sudanic and Luo blood , then , after and becoming grown ups and with Paternal Tribal tendency insticts as it happens in all Human Cultures , would in future prefer to segregate themselves and prefer to live along the River shores of the Nile and Lake shores of Lake Albert in the Territory Areas of Mahagi with the Capital City Bunia which is located in the South – East part of Ituri Region of Lado till todate .

Infact most of the Alur People and out of their Food dietary needs became and turned out to be good Fishmongers , meaning of monger from Latin : mangò = salesman , so they came and come to be as good Fish salemen and women in Lado . This is the hard truth and as much known of their History Lines of the Alur Tribes of the Nilotic Luo in Lado .

The Alur's are somtimes known and called or referred to as the Jonam People by the Luo – Nilotic People , that is to say , in their Paternal Luo Language versions . Jonam meaning people of Water or living by the Water side which in this case is referring to or of them living by the Water shores of the River Nile and that of Lake Albert as already said above . In the long run slowly by slowly , the Alur or Jonam People started organisng themselves into various smaller groupings making smaller Tribal existences of their own Identifications of choice , hence forming Counties with their local Chiefs calling them as Rwots in their Luo Paternal Language , in Lado State Kingdom .
The notable Counties till todate are the Okoro , Angal , Padyere , Jonam and others coming up yet . The Alur or Jonam continue to live in Lado which is their home place anyway and have been and are fully recognised in Lado , living in harmony with the rest of the Ladoans or Lado People , especially , with the Sudanic Lugbari , Madi , Lendu , Kebu or Ndu Tribes as their immediate Neighbours covering the whole of the South Region Areas of Lado and frequently intermarriage amongst themselves without any frictions in between .

The Term Nilotics :

The Term Nilotics which was introduced by the Europeans is actually and was being adopted by referring to the Luo People specifically in East Sudan , who to them were known as People living a long the River Nile and who kept on moving or migrating along the off shores of the River Nile . Infact , the Luos as such are good pastorilists and fishermen following their migration pathways a long the water river stream ways or water lake coasts who in the end covered up large areas or Lands , living in Uganda , Kenya and extending up to Tanzania , all living nearby water Land Areas only .

Notes on the term Nilotic or Nilotes which often is linked to the Luo's being called so in the Nile Valley Regions

The adjective term Nilotic , from the Name Nile , derives from the semetic word Nahal , which in Greek is Neilos and in Latin became as Nilus , in Italian as Nilo , in French as Nil and in English , Great Britain as the Nile which means River or Water flow / or current water and this name then became attribuited to the current or flowing water from Egypt towards the interior of Africa being called simply The Nile or more phonetically good sounding as River Nile and all historical events became connected to the Nile , The River , in the times of the Ancient Black Egypt .

The Origin of the Luo People

Why Luo’s are called Nilotics then ?

The enigma of Luos being called Nilotics is out of the Europeans who attributed the term Nilotics is because of their living closely to the banks of River Nile in the Egyptian Sudan when they met or came incontact with them in the course of the exploration , navigation of the River Nile towards the south . So , these Europeans called the Luos and all the rest of the Blacks in nakename as the Nilotics which has remained till todate .
The origin of Luos or Luo : they are actually the descendants of Makuria People who inturn are the descendants of the Nuba People or the Nubians or somtimes called the Anuba People , who first settled around the Mountain they named Mt. Nuba after the rebellion that took place in Egypt during the Pharao’s period of Pharao Couple , Tut – Ank – Amon and Queen Nefertiti .

True , the Nubians or the Nuba / Anuba People and together with the Ladoans fought to liberate themselves from , in Egypt as the Black Peoples of the Ancient Egypt during the Political upheaval that took place then during the Rule Period of the last Pharao Couple , Tut – Ank – Amon and Queen Nefertiti as much is reported in the History Lines of the Ancient Egypt already .

The Nuba or the Anuba people , infact , in the rebellion , had fought side by side with the Lado People to liberate themselves in Egypt . After the war they moved southwards and immediately to the South of Egypt , they occupied the empty Territories they found and became the Inhabitants thereby , creating their first Kingdom they called the Nuba / or Anuba and later as the – Nobatia Kingdom in the Middle River Nile Valley . It is the same Kingdom which was and is the same Territory Lands which constitutes the actual today’s North and South Sudan Lands or what was or has been called the Independent United Republic State of Sudan which once again has now been divided or spilted into the two Independent States recently in 2011 forming the North Sudan State Country and South Sudan State Country .

Infact , the Ottomans together with the Europeans had earlier conquered the Nuba Kingdom totally by 1841 and later changed the name to be known or called as the Egyptian Sudan Territory from 1820 – 1841 in the Middle Nile Valley , whereby the Khedive or Lord of Egypt , Isma’il of Egypt became the first Governor – General for about one year , from November 1820 – 1821 .

In short to say then , The Egyptian Sudan was actually the former Nuba Kingdom which later got splited into three Kingdoms of : Nobatia , Makuria , Alodia Kingdoms . But Alodia would not last long as the Kingdom joined Makuria and thereby becoming One and forming the South end of the Egyptian Sudan Boundary to that of the Kingdom of Lado which was always different from the three Kingdoms mentioned above – Nobatia , Makuria and Alodia .

But , for Lado , after the conquest of Lado Kingdom , the Ottomans took Lado seperalety as a different Territory Entity and gave to it the name Equatoria in 1871 . The Ottoman Arabs first attacked Lado People in 1854 to start with , thus opening the war which dragged on until 1869 when the Ottoman Khedive of Egypt , Supreme – Commander ordered Major General Sir Samuel White Baker who was in the Ottoman Army and under the Command of the Khedive to attack and take over Lado .
In 1871 , Lado fell under the Ottoman Rule then and becoming a special Province of Egypt and never was or had become a part of Egyptian Sudan .

With the new Names established and given to the conquered African Black Kingdoms of former Nuba , Makuria and Alodia Kingdoms together as Egyptian Sudan and former Lado Kingdom as Equatoria or Lado – Equatoria Province of Egypt , the two diferrent Kingdoms became then the distinct Political Nation States or Entities under the Ottoman Empire and continued to be governed or administered with different seperate Governor – Generals nominated by the Khedive of the Ottoman Imperial Sovereign Power over them .

In the course of running the Political Administration Affairs of these two Kingdoms , the Khedive of Egypt in 1877 was obliged and made to compromise in leaving Egyptian Sudan to the European Vanguards – Tyrannical Gladiator like Beings who helped and had fought side by side with the Ottoman Soldiers or Army in taking the African Lands and bringing the different African People under the Ottoman Rule .

The ceding of Egyptian Sudan to the European – Tyrannical Gladiator like Beings or the Vanguards was also as a result of the obligations to and in honouring the Treaty Agreements of the Turco Egyptian firman of 13 February 1841 and the Turco – Egyptian firman of 1 April 1869 signed by the Europeans , Ottomans and the Americans of the United States of America , USA . At the same time and as a reciprocal gesture from the Europeans and the Americans to the Ottomans , the Euro – Americans accepted the Khedive Isma’il’s decline to cede Lado or Lado – Equatoria Province of Egypt then to the European Administrations and making Lado – Equatoria to be under him and therefore directly under the Sovereign Power of the Ottomans only .

This is how the Khedive got Lado , and nominated the British National Major General , Sir Samuel White Baker as the Governor – General for him as he could not move to settle in Lado . Sir Samuel Baker was the favoured Governor – General to become , because , he was a very close friend of the Khedive of the Ottoman Empire and was serving him in the Ottoman military Army and was ordered by the Khedive to command the military attack on Lado . From this military practise done , it’s here that , Sir Samuel White Baker became promoted to the Military rank of Major General in the Ottoman Army and his Salary of course was being paid by the Ottoman Authority then .

You can get more informations about the Luo People in my Book written : LADO THE OCCUPIED TERRITORY THE HEART OF AFRICA

Writer : Okuonzi

Mulago hospital was built by the British and expanded by Iddi Amin!


Dr. Emmanuel Lumu, first Ugandan Minister of Health, welcoming Sir Edward Mutesa, President of the Republic of newly independent Uganda, to the opening of New Mulago Hospital, October 1962. Duchess of York to the left.

On 16 October 1972, 10 years after it was opened, then President Idi Amin marked the anniversary by visiting Mulago Hospital to see patients. The expulsion of Asians, including a sizable proportion of senior medical staff, was already well underway.

WHAT DO U KNOW ABOUT EGYPT?


Ancient Egyptians were closer to Armenians than to Africans

By Rahimu Jabendo via the UAH forum
Egypt is an intensively sophisticated society right from the times of Joseph till now, but aside the little details like the fact that they bury their Pharaohs who then become mummies, what else do you know about this country that is believed to be the richest country ever? Let us run through a few.
1) Egypt presently occupies a land mass of 1million square kilometers making it one of the largest countries in the world. And with a population of over 88million, it is a very dense country. The primary language is Arabic. And their cultural rulers are called Pharaohs.
2) In ancient times, the Egyptians built elaborate structures called pyramids just to serve as tombs for their Pharaohs! And it wasn’t the Israelites that built all of them, the Egyptians used to hire labourers to build the pyramids.
3) It is believed that each pyramid in Egypt houses one Pharaoh and his entire family members and concubines. Therefore when you are in an Egyptian pyramid, watch out for a few ghosts.
4) The Egyptians were the first to believe in the afterlife. Long before Jesus Christ brought the message of redemption, the Egyptians always believed that preserving a dead person’s body through the process of mummification, their soul would live in peace in the world to come. It is still not clear if the mummies used to come back to life though.
5) The ancient Egyptians believed in more than 2000 gods! In fact some Egyptian priests used to spend two years attempting to pray to all the gods and still it was too much. The study of the Egyptian gods too is even more fascinating than that of Greece and Rome.
6) Cats are actually considered sacred animals in Egypt. Every house has a pet cat which brings goodluck and chases away evil spirit, just like the cat from The Mummy.
7) Tue ancient Egyptians invented paper, pens, locks and keys and most important of all, they invented toothpaste!! So when next you brush your teeth in the morning thank the Egyptians for discovering a tool that fights mouth odour. The pens invented were used to write down the ancient Egyptian alphabets which had over 700 characters.
8) The Egyptians also invented the 365 days a year calendar divided into 12 months. This was invented to predict the annual flooding of the Nile. The Egyptians also wrote the first ever book about mathematics in 1650 BC.
9) Equality began in Egypt. In ancient Egypt, women had as much rights as male with some females having even more rights than the males. Women could assume several offices such as the office of Pharaoh!!! So if you are a feminist, Egypt is for you.
10) In ancient Egypt, beer was used to pay labourers,if you go to Egypt and want a job make sure you inform the owner that you wouldn’t want to be paid with beer.

Obote never wanted to hurt Prince Mutebi in 1980s


By George Okello in London via UAH forum,
Prince Mutebi was freely let out of Uganda during Obote 2. I remember clearly that he was surrounded by Col John Ogole who was over-ruled by his boss President Milton Obote at the 11th hour before he launched an encirclement and suppression assault. He told Obote that he was not going to take any prisoners. Obote did not want Mutebi’s blood on hands and so allowed him to escape.

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